is the largest country in East Africa, bordering Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south.Regions
Northwest Tanzania - Africa's "great lakes" and the SerengetiNortheast Tanzania - the mountainous location of KilimanjaroCentral Tanzania - a plateau with grasslandsSoutheast Tanzania - hot, humid shorelineZanzibar - a coastal island in the Indian OceanCities and Towns
Dar es SalaamBagamoyoArushaDodomaMoshiIringaStone Town (Zanzibar)Other destinations
Mount Kilimanjaro - Africa's highest peak and the world's highest free standing mountain. You can climb it with the help of a guide.Ngorongoro Conservation Area - includes the Ngorongoro Crater and Olduvai GorgeArusha National ParkGombe National ParkRuaha National ParkRubondo National ParkSerengeti National ParkKilimanjaro National ParkLake Manyara National ParkMikumi National ParkTarangire National Park
See also African National ParksUnderstand
A large central plateau makes up most of the mainland (at between 900m and 1800m) and the mountain ranges of the Eastern Arc and the Southern and Northern Highlands cut across the country to form part of the Great Rift Valley.
A land of geographical extremes, Tanzania has the highest peak – Mount Kilimanjaro, the lowest point – the lake bed of Lake Tanganyika, and shares the largest lake – Lake Victoria - on the African continent.Climate
Tanzania's weather varies from humid and hot in low lying areas such as Dar es Salaam, to hot during the day and cool at night in Arusha. There are no discernible seasons such as Winter and Summer, only the dry and wet seasons. Tanzania has two rainy seasons: the short rains from late-October to late-December, a.k.a. the Mango Rains, and the long rains from March to May.Note:
Many popular resorts and tourist attractions on Zanzibar and Mafia Island Marine Park close during the long rains, and many trails in the national parks are impassable during this period, so in most cases tours are restricted to the main roads in the parks. Travelers should plan their trip accordingly.
During the dry season temperatures can easily soar to above 35°C in Dar. You should seek shelter from the sun during the midday heat and use copious amounts of sunblock, SPF 30+.
Best times to visit are:June to August: This is the tail-end of the long rainy season and the weather is at its best at this time of year. Bearable during the day and cool in the evening. However, this is not necessarily the best time of year for safaris as water is plentiful in the parks and animals aren't forced to congregate in a few locations to rehydrate, such as in the middle of the dry season right after Christmas.January to February: This is the best time to visit the Serengeti as it is usually at this time that huge herds of Wildebeest, Zebra and Buffalo migrate to better grazing areas. At this period you could observe some of the 1.5 million Wildebeest that inhabit the Serengeti undertake there epic journey. Be advised this is probably the hottest time of year in Tanzania when even the locals complain about the heat. You've been warned!Get in
North Americans and Europeans can obtain tourist visas upon landing in Tanzania at a cost of US$50 paid in US dollars.
In Dar es Salaam, stand in the visa line, which is on the right hand side of the queue for passport control. It can get a bit hectic because several international flights arrive almost simultaneously, so ask others where the queue starts. Africans aren't big fans of waiting in line so don't hesitate to stand your ground.
Once you've received your visa, there's no need to stop at passport control; they issue the visa and stamp you in at the same time, so just walk through to the baggage claim area.By plane
There are two major airports; one in Dar es Salaam, Julius Nyerere International Airport - (IATA:DAR)
(formerly known as Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere International Airport and Dar es Salaam International Airport), and one in Kilimanjaro, Kilimanjaro International Airport - (IATA:JRO)
, which is halfway between Arusha and Moshi.
Tanzania is served Internationally
Europe by:KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Amsterdam), +255 22 213 9790 (Dar) & +255 27 223 8355 (Arusha), , Daily flights with stopover in Kilimanjaro.British Airways (London-Heathrow), +255 22 211 3820, , Daily flights.Swiss International Airlines (Zurich), +255 22 211 8870, , 5 flights a week with a stopover in Nairobi, Kenya.
Middle East and Asia by:Emirates (Dubai), +255 22 211 6100, , Daily flights. Qatar Airways (Doha), +255 22 284 2675, , 1019, Julius Nyerere International Airport, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Daily flights.Air India (Mumbai), +255 22 215 2642, , Daily flights.
Africa bySouth African Airways (Johannesburg), +255 22 211 7044, , Daily flights.Ethiopian Airlines (Addis Ababa), +255 22 211 7063, , Daily flights with a stopover in Kilimanjaro.Kenya Airways (Nairobi), +255 22 211 9376 (Dar) & +255 24 223 8355 (Zanzibar), , several daily flights with some stopping in Kilimanjaro.Carriers originating from Egypt, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe also have regular flights to Dar es Salaam.
by:Air Tanzania, +255 22 211 8411, , email:firstname.lastname@example.org.Precision Air, +255 22 212 1718, , Along Nyerere/Pugu Road, P.O Box 70770, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, email:email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org Coastal Aviation, +255 22 211 7959, , P. O. Box 3052, 107 Upanga Road, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, email: email@example.comZanAir, +255 24 223 3670, , P.O.Box 2113, Zanzibar, Tanzania, email:firstname.lastname@example.org.
:which provide almost daily service to all major cities including Dar es Salaam, Arusha, Mwanza, Mbeya, Zanzibar, and most national parks.Warning:
Domestic flights are often late but generally reliable.By train
The Tanzania - Zambia train service known as TAZARA
operates trains between New Kapiri Mposhi, Zambia and Dar es Salaam twice a week.
A domestic train network links the country's major cities, including Kigoma, Mwanza, Dodoma, Tabora and Dar es Salaam. The domestic train service is usually reliable and ticket prices affordable. Ticket prices differ, however, according to 'class', typically first, second and third. First and second classes offer cabins with two and four beds, respectively. Third class is open seating. Hot meals and beverages are usually available from the dining car. It is not uncommon for the train kitchen to purchase fresh produce at many of the stopping points along the way. It is also possible to purchase fruit and snacks directly from local vendors who frequent the many train stations on each of Tanzania's many train routes.By carWarning:
It's not advised to drive in Tanzania, or throughout most of Africa, unless you are experienced with driving conditions in developing countries. Nonetheless, here is some useful information for those thinking of undertaking the challenge.Drive on the left side of the roadTanzanians drive on the left as opposed to the right like in North America and most European countries. Experienced drivers will require about half a day of driving around to adjust to the change. Although the gear shift, windshield wipers and turn signal activators are reversed, luckily, the pedals aren't. Just follow the traffic. However, even with some practice you should always be vigilant because you could easily find yourself disoriented which could put you at risk of a head-on collision or hitting a pedestrian.Choice of vehicleIf you're hiring a car when you get here, your best option is a 4x4 sport utility vehicle with good road clearance, especially if you plan on going on safari. Look for Land Cruiser, Hilux Surf (4Runner), and Range Rover types of vehicles. Avoid mini-SUVs such as the Toyota RAV4 and Honda CRV, because they can't always negotiate the poor road conditions in most national parks.NavigationNelles Maps of Tanzania, Rwanda & Burundi is the best. They've taken the time to identify even the smallest of villages along the routes which is great for navigating when landmarks are scarce.There are markers, white concrete pillions, along the main roads which identify the next major city or town along the route and how many kilometers remain.Driving in the cityThis only applies to Dar es Salaam since all other cities and towns are relatively small and easy to get around in. The city center is extremely congested from 09:00 to 18:00 from Monday to Friday. There are few traffic lights and the streets are very narrow. It's dog-eat-dog, so offensive driving skills are a must as no one will let you pass if you just sit and wait at stops signs. Streets are crowded with parked and moving cars, SUVs, lorries, scooters, and very muscular men pulling insanely overload carts. People can spend hours stuck in traffic jams, especially around Kariakoo Market.There are a few roundabouts in the downtown, which the locals call "keeplefties" because they thought that the sign advising drivers to "Keep Left" when entering the roundabouts was the name of this fascinating Mzungu invention. Mzungu is the Swahili word for "white" foreigners. It is not derogatory more along the lines of calling a white person a Caucasian.When parking on the street in Dar, find a spot to park, then lock your doors and leave. When you return, a parking attendant wearing a yellow florescent vest will approach you for payment. The fee is 300 Tsh for two hours. The attendant should either hand you a ticket or it will already be on your windshield. DO NOT leave without paying if there is a ticket on your windshield, because the attendant will been forced to make up for the missing money, and probably only earns 3000 Tsh a day at best.Note:
Carjackings are uncommon but opening doors or jumping through open windows to steal valuables is not. Keep your windows closed and doors locked. When stopped at traffic lights or parked in unattended locations, thieves have been known to steal mirrors, paneling, spare tires and anything that is not either engraved with the license plate number of bolted to the vehicle's body. Choose your parking spots carefully and don't leave valuables in plain sight. You can either offer the parking attendant a small tip to watch your vehicle, 500 to 1000 Tsh, or find a secured parking lot, especially if your leaving the vehicle overnight.RoutesThe two main roads are the "Dar es Salaam to Mbeya" road (A7/A17) which takes you to the Southern Highlands through the towns of Morogoro, Iringa and Mikumi National Park, and near Selous and Ruhaha NPs. The other is the "Dar to Arusha and the Serengeti" road (B1) which takes you to the Northern Circuit by the towns of Tanga and Moshi, and Mount Kilimanjaro, Saadani, Tanrangire, Ngorongoro and Serengeti NPs.Dangers and annoyancesTanzanians drive very fast and won't hesitate to overtake in a blind curve. Also, most commercial vehicles are poorly maintained and overloaded, and by consequence you'll see many broken-down along the main highways. NEVER assume their brakes are working or that the drivers have fully thought through the dangerous maneuver they are undertaking.Most roads in Tanzania are poorly maintained, and littered with potholes and dangerous grooves formed by overloaded transport vehicles. All main roads cut through towns and villages and in many cases traffic calming tools (a.k.a. speed or road humps) are used to ensure vehicles reduce their speed when passing through. Unfortunately, few are clearly marked and most are hard to see until you are right upon them, and if you are coming too fast, you could be thrown from the road. SLOW DOWN when entering any town or you might not be able to avoid these and other hazards. This is also prudent because animals and children often bolt out into the street.Note:
If you are involved in an accident with a pedestrian, drive to the nearest police station and advise them. DO NOT exit your vehicle and attempt to resolve the situation even if you are sure it was not your fault. Tanzanians are some of the nicest people you will meet in Africa, but they have been known to take matters into their own hands. This is largely due to their mistrust of the police and the belief that anyone with money, e.g. rich foreigners, can buy their way out of a problem.If you encounter a convoy of government vehicles, move out of the way. They have priority, although this is debatable, and will not hesitate to run you off the road if you don't give way. You could also be fined by the police for your failure to give way.FYI:
In Tanzania, you can determine vehicle registration by the license plate colours: YELLOW
plates which start with "T"
and followed by three numbers are privately owned vehicles. Official Tanzanian government plates are also yellow but only have letters and usually start with "S"
(the fewer the letters, the higher up in the food chain the owner is), GREEN
plates are diplomatic, RED
are international development agencies, BLUE
are United Nations, WHITE
are taxis and buses, and BLACK
are military and police. This coding does not apply to Zanzibar and Pemba.Passing EtiquetteDrivers following you will activate their right turn signal light to indicate they wish to pass you. If the road is clear, activate your left turn signal, if not, activate your right turn signal. Look for this when attempting to pass.What to bring* A large jerry can (20 liters) with emergency fuel. (FYI - Don’t enter a national park without a full tank of gas)* A shovel, machete ("panga" in Swahili) and tow rope* Good road maps* First-aid kit* Drinking water, at least 5 liters, and non-perishable emergency food supplyBy bus
Bus is a great way to get into Tanzania. Fly to somewhere like Nairobi then you can catch the bus down to Arusha (a great base for Mount Meru and Ngorongoro Crater). Scandanavian is the most reliable bus company.
The border town of Namanga is a hectic outpost that epitomizes much of Africa. The bus even waits here for you to cross the border. you can even get off on the Kenyan side walk across the border and get on again on the Tanzanian side.
Tawfiq Buses also connect Mombasa with Tanga and Dar in Tanzania.
Scandanavian also has service to Lusaka, Zambia.
It is also possible to travel to Malawi, Uganda, Rwanda from Dar by bus.By boatGet around
Bus is the most common way to travel around Tanzania. Most buses are simple and the roads are poor, although on the Dar-Moshi-Arusha route, 1st class air-con buses can be taken. Nearly all buses go in and out of Dar es Salaam. The main bus station in Dar (where all buses go), Ubungo, is 8km west of the city center. A number of the better "intercity buses" provide you with complimentary drinks and biscuits. Scandinavian Express
is your best choice if you want to travel by bus. They operate their own terminal in downtown Dar.
In Dar, shared taxis called Dalla-Dallas
can be taken cheaply to most places.
are also a convenient choice, but be sure to negotiate the price before you leave. If you're at the airport, just ask a fellow Tanzanian traveler how much it costs from the airport to downtown. Tanzanians are always happy to help. Just do it before you leave the terminal. Once outside it can be a bit overwhelming. In Dar, a taxi from the airport to the city center should be 15,000 TSH.
If you can afford it, flying around Tanzania is faster and safer. See "By plane
" in the "Get In
" section above. Even the busiest roads are in poor condition and bus drivers are not known for their patience or great driving skills. Road accidents claim more lives in Tanzania than anything else.Do
For those wanting to look at the animals there are loads of National Parks. For around $100 US you can gain entry and benefit from a tour (and perhaps a nights accommodation). The better parks are found in the north of the country, while Ruaha National Park is the best in the south.
Scuba diving in and around Pemba and Zanzibar is also a good experience.
You can also visit numerous historical Slave Trade sites which make for an interesting, if a little depressing, excursion.
Beaches - Did you know that Tanzania has some of the best, most unspoiled beaches in the world? They are stunning with their white sand, palm trees and the cool Indian Ocean water.See
Tanzania is a country with great national parks where you can see some of the finest African flora and faunaNational Parks:
: Serengeti National Park
and Ngorongoro Conservation Area
rank as some of the top tourist destinations in Africa. Despite the throngs of tourists in the parks at all times of the year, they're still the best places on earth to see tons of wildlife in their natural habitat. Trips to these parks are not cheap, but certainly worth every penny.
: Ruaha National Park
and Selous Game Reserve
are far less popular but very enjoyable. You won't find the volume of wildlife you would in the Serengeti, but if you're looking for a destination with fewer tourist, these parks are for you. Additionally, Selous is the only other place besides Ngorongoro where you may see a Rhino.Islands:
is an island off the coast of Tanzania which includes both Zanzibar and Pemba. Zanzibar has beautiful beaches and historical Stone Town. Zanzibar is great for scuba diving and swimming with dolphins. you can take one of the many spice tours or visit the Colobus monkeys in Jozani forest.
: Mafia Island Marine Park
is south of Zanzibar and boast some fantastic scuba diving and snorkeling, and if you're lucky you may get to swim with whale sharks. This is one of the few areas in the world where they congregate annually.Something a little more demanding:
: Mount Kilimanjaro
is the highest peak in Africa and one of the highest freestanding mountains in the world. Many people travel to Tanzania just to climb this mountain. You can either organize your trek up the mountain from your home country through a travel agency, but you'll pay a lot more for this convenience, or if you've got a bit of time, hop on plane and save some money by organizing it in Arusha or in Dar. Be advised that their are as many incompetent and dishonest trek organizers as there are good ones. Ask around to make sure your guide will deliver on his promises.Talk
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), plus many local languages. Tanzanians speak Kiswahili and, to some extent, English. (As elsewhere, English is more commonly spoken in larger cities and tourist destinations, where it is common.)
Most Tanzanians learn their local tribal language first. Then in primary school, they learn Kiswahili. When they go to secondary school, they are taught English.Buy
The currency of Tanzania is known as the Tanzanian Shilling
, /=). There are 5 notes and 6 coins:Notes - 10000 (Red), 5000 (Violet), 2000 (Brown), 1000 (Blue) and 500 (Green) denominations.Coins - 200, 100, 50, 20, 10 and 5 denominations.
Notes and coins vary in size and colour. 10000 is the largest note and 500 the smallest. The other notes vary in size in descending order. Coins don't follow this standard.
As of February 2007, one US dollar is worth about 1300 Tsh. Be advised that if you withdraw a large amount of money, anything of $400 US, you'll have to carry over 50 notes around.
Most hotels will change US dollars, Euros and British Pounds. Other currencies, such as Canadian or Australian dollars, may be accepted but at rates far below the going rate. ATMs are mostly located in the city center and on the Msasani Peninsula. In general, Barclay's
, Standard Charter
and NBC ATM
s work with PLUS and Cirrus compatible cards.
10000 and 5000 notes can be difficult to break when shopping in small shops a.k.a. Dukas
. In Tanzania, it's usually the responsibility of the customer to provide exact change. If they do agree to provide change, you could be left with several 1000 and 500 notes of very poor quality. You won't have these problems in large hotels and restaurants that cater to foreigners.Traveler's Checks
Cashing Traveler's Checks can be hit and miss in Tanzania. On some days banks will accept them and other days they won't. Some days they may charge a fee and other days they won't. It really depends on the teller. Hotels will always accept them but at a far lesser rate than hard currency.Credit Cards
can only be used in large hotels, resorts and with certain travel agents. Tanzania is basically still a cash society. However, if you have a PIN code for your credit card you can withdraw money from almost any ATM in Tanzania, even from the local financial institutions, such as Exim Bank, which don't accept foreign bank debit cards.Shopping
There are many markets in tourist cities that sell standard "African" goods. Beaded jewelry, carved soapstone and Masai blankets make interesting gifts. Be aware that most "ebony" wood is fake (shoe polish) - the exception being in the far south-east where the Makonde tribe of Tanzania and Northern Mozambique create masks and other carvings from ebony and mpingo wood. Be prepared to bargain hard for everything. Masks are not typical of most East African groups, and the ones you will find in the markets are either imported from West Africa, or are strange things made just for tourists (exception again being the Makonde masks).
Tinga Tinga paintings, named after the painter who originated that style, are for sale everywhere. Their distinctive style and colors make for attractive souvenirs. A standard size painting can be had for TS 5,000 - 10,000. There is a Tinga Tinga school in Dar es Salaam where you can purchase paintings from the artists themselves.Eat
Produce is often of very high quality. Meat and milk can be difficult for Western systems, so be sure that all meat is cooked through. At hotels, you will not have any trouble, but if you venture into small villages, make sure that all water is filtered or boiled before drinking, and all fruits and vegetables are peeled before eating.Local dishes include Mtori, cooked beef and bananas, and Mchicha, a vegetable stew which can also contain meat or fish.If anything can be called Tanzania's national dish Ugali would most likely win out. A polenta-style dish made with corn flour, it accompanies a variety of stews, cooked meat and is eaten with your hands. Recipes vary from village to village and everyone has their own way of making it. Many foreigners find it bland and unappealing but it's worth a try, and some upscale establishments serve it.Chai Maziwa (chai with milk) is a local favorite and well worth trying if you can handle the large amounts of sugar they add to this drink.Street food is also cheap and plentiful: barbecued maize on the cob is very nice, as are the chipped potatoes (fries) that that are cooked over a roaring fire.Mandazi is a sweet doughnut styled food that is mostly made fresh each morning. Great with coffee in the morning and makes an ideal snack.Tanzania's large South Asian community ensures a great variety of restaurants offering cuisine from all parts of that region. All the eateries near Hindu temples (particularly in Dar) are a good bet. Just watch where the local Indians go to eat, and you won't be disappointed. Most of the food is cooked in large amounts of Ghee, clarified butter, and can be hard for some people to digest.Chips Mayai (chips cooked in an omelet) are served at nearly every African food stand in Tanzania and are considered a Tanzanian specialty. They're quite good with pili pili (hot sauce).Northern Tanzania boast a number of great coffee plantations. Although coffee does not have the popularity in Tanzania as it has in Ethiopia, with a bit of searching you can find a decent cup of java, not just the instant "Africa" coffee served in most restaurants. Large hotels in Dar all make good coffee. If you want to brew your own cup, Msumbi Coffee Shop, +255 22 260 0380, Sea Cliff Village, sells Tanzanian coffee beans ground or whole, which they roast on the premises.Drink
Bottled water is cheap and widely available throughout the country. You shouldn't drink the tap water unless you have no other option and it must either be filtered with a high quality filter and purifier or kept at a rolling boiled for at east 10 minutes before consumption. Recent tests on tap water have found it contaminated with many bacteria such as e-coli.Konyagi is a wonderful gin-like beverage, sold only in Tanzania.Domestic beers are Kilimanjaro, Serengeti and Safari, which are western-style and very good. Imports include Tuscker, Ndovu, Stella Artoi, and Castle.Locally produced banana-beer is also sometimes found, but questionably safe to drink. Traditionally, you will drink this out of a hollowed gourd. Guests drink first, and then pass to the elders. In some parts of of Tanzania fermented bamboo juice (Pombe) is the common tipple.Passion fruit, Mango and Orange juices are available at many restaurants and excellent when the fruits are in season.Soft drinks are widely available; Stoney Tangawizi (ginger ale - tangawizi means 'ginger' in Swahili is one of the more popular.Other popular beverages include: Orange Fanta, Krest Soda Water, Krest Tonic Water, and Lassi (a sweet or salty yogurt drink).Sleep
Sunrise and sunset are always the same time (about 7) at the equator.Learn
Various schools and volunteer programs offer courses ranging from Beginners Swahili to Economic Development. Dar es Salaam also has a well established University which has exchange programs with several universities in the US and other countries.Work
There are a wide assortment of volunteer organisations sending volunteers and interns to Tanzania to do work in health care, orphanages, education, and development projects. Finding a paying job may be more daunting and take more time and local connections, but is certainly obtainable if sought hard enough.Stay safe
Tanzania is a safe country by African standards. However, caution should be exercised when visiting crowded markets like Kariakoo, walking along beaches like Coco Beach in Dar es Salaam, and isolated areas.Walking
There are very few sidewalks in Tanzania so walking can be dangerous. You should always pay careful attention to the traffic and be prepared to move as vehicles will not make much effort to avoid pedestrians. In Tanzania, cars have priority.Corruption
Tanzania, like many developing countries, suffers from rampant corruption, especially within the ranks of elected officials, bureaucrats, and authority figures such as police officers. Many people are very much averse to paying a bribe to anyone, especially in a country with so many needy but honest citizens.
Generally, tourists have limited interaction with such individuals. However, should the occasion arise where you are solicited for a bribe by an official willing to turn a blind eye to your infraction, fabricated or otherwise, here are some suggestions for what to do:A word of caution: Police in Tanzania carry guns and batons and have been known to beat and even kill people. There are only rumours of incidents involving tourists, but that doesn’t mean it can’t happen. Always demonstrate respect for their authority, never raise your voice, swear or insult them, especially with other people around. Whether you are right or not does not matter at this point. With some patience and polite banter you may get away with only a verbal warning.
The basic idea is to discourage the individual’s attempts at soliciting a bribe from you.Play dumb. Politely explain to the person that you don't understand the nature of the infraction, even if you do. Tanzanians are not direct and prefer to imply what they want instead of outright asking. Tell them you've only just arrived in the country, even if it's your 100th visit. If you know some Kiswahili, I wouldn't mention it. It may only make things harder.On-the-spot-fine is the term used for bribe. This is proposed in an effort to initiate a conversation about money. They will tell you that the real fine is 40,000 Tsh or more and that for 20,000 or 30,000 Tsh, paid to him/her right now, you can be on your way and avoid a trip to the Police Station to pay the higher fine. In this situation I’ve requested a receipt with an official stamp, which has been met with much confusion and concern. The idea is to show that you don’t know that this is a bribe and are simply trying to play by the rules.Hopefully, after 10 or 20 minutes of a circular, but always polite, conversation, they may send you on your merry way.I've also proposed, with success, that we go to my Embassy and have an official there help translate, due to my poor knowledge of the local language and laws, even when they speak decent English. They usually have a look of horror on their face at this point, since they don't want any real officials involved. Asking for bribes is illegal and there is an office of corruption where you can report them.Don't discuss money or negotiate the fine, as this shows that you understand the nature of the conversation.If after a prolonged conversation it's apparent that the official will not take "I don't understand" for an answer, politely call his/her bluff and agree to go to the police station. They don't really want to go there, because they will not get any money from you. If you're lucky, you'll end up driving around for a bit "looking" for the police station, after which he may stop the vehicle thank you for being so polite and send you on your way without having to pay a fine. It is not recommend that you allow a cop to get into your vehicle. Misunderstandings happen when you suggest going to the Police Station. If they ask for a lift, politely say no. You are not obliged to drive them to the Station. Furthermore, they carry AK-47, which could potentially/accidentally go off. It's unclear how much training police have in handling firearms.Finally, if they escort you to the police station, just pay the fine. This may end up costing you more than the bribe, but at least this cop won't get any money out of it, and may think twice before flagging down another foreigner.Comment: Cops, like many others, earn very little money. It's thought as little as $40 a month. Some individuals and a few well known travel guides suggest that travelers negotiate and pay the agreed to fines so as to avoid any problems. They may disagree with the approach proposed above, and reason that paying a small fine is not such a big deal, that this how things are in Africa, and that the real problem is with corrupt governments who don't pay decent wages. Although this is true, contributing to the ongoing problem is not helping. If officials can no longer make money off bribes, perhaps they will start to pressure the government to increase their salaries.Stay healthy
Illnesses and diseases
As in most African countries, the AIDS/HIV infection rate is high. Tanzania's HIV/AIDS infection rate was 9% at the end of 2003 UNAIDS
. This figure is deceiving, however, since many subpopulations such as artisanal miners, itinerant fisherman, truck drivers and sex workers, have HIV infection rates significantly higher than the national average. Do not have unprotected sex in Tanzania or anywhere.
For most tourists to Tanzania, Malaria
will be your greatest concern. Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes and is endemic to Tanzania. You are at risk in almost every part of the country, although this risk is somewhat diminished when at altitudes above 2000m. Care should always be taken between sunset and sunrise, especially during the rainy season. Always sleep under a treated net, wear trousers and closed footwear, and use an effective repellent. It's amazing but many large hotels don’t automatically install mosquito nets in their rooms. However, a call to the reception requesting one is seldom ignored.
Before you leave for Tanzania, you may also wish to consult a physician about taking some form of anti-malarial medication, before, during and after your trip. If in spite of your best efforts you do contract Malaria, it is usually easily treated with medication that is readily available throughout most of the country. If you plan on being in more isolated locations, you may wish to drop by one of the clinics and purchase a batch. Note that symptoms associated with Malaria can take up to two weeks to manifest themselves. The rule of thumb for ex-pats living in Tanzania, is that any fever that last more than a day is a cause for concern and requires an urgent trip to the clinic for a malaria test. Notify your doctor that you’ve been to a malaria infected country if you start to run a fever shortly after returning from Tanzania.
Other major illnesses to avoid include typhoid
. In theory, typhoid can be avoided by carefully selecting food and drink, and avoiding consumption of anything unclean. Typhoid infection, according to the U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) , is marked by 'persistent, high fevers...headache, malaise, anorexia, splenomegaly, and relative bradycardia.'
Cholera infection is marked by vomiting and sudden, uncontrollable bowel movements which can dehydrate and ultimately kill the sufferer within 48 hours. It is important to seek medical attention as quickly as possible. Cholera is more or less a seasonal phenomenon in Zanzibar, where outbreaks frequently occur during the rainy seasons. Vaccines and/or oral prevention are available for both typhoid and cholera.Yellow Fever:
Is an acute viral disease transmitted through the bite of a particular mosquito. Although not as common as Malaria, it is nonetheless a serious disease and travelers to Africa should consult a physician about being vaccinated against it. Additionally, if you plan on traveling to other countries after your stay in Tanzania, be advised that some countries, such as South Africa, may require proof that you’ve been vaccinated against Yellow Fever before allowing you to enter the country. If you aren’t or can’t prove it, you will be offered two options: 1) receive the Yellow Fever vaccination at the airport, 2) immediately leave the country. WARNING:
The Yellow Fever vaccine can have serious side affects for some people. Therefore, you may wish to get the vaccine in your home country under controlled conditions. Most physicians will not administer the Yellow Fever vaccine to children under the age of 1 year, a letter from a physician explaining this will ensure your infant child is not forced to receive it at the airport.Gastrointestinal Distress:
A.k.a. traveler’s diarrhea is the result of one, some or all the following reasons: unhygienic food preparation, changes in diet, fatigue, dehydration and excessive alcohol consumption. Prevention is your best defense. Only eat raw vegetables and fruits you can peel and which have been washed in clean water. Avoid street or restaurant food that appears to have been left in the open for extended periods of time. Only eat freshly fried or steamed food. You should only drink bottled water which is available throughout the country. You should even brush your teeth with it. If you must drink the tap or well water, boil it for a minimum of 10 minutes or use a high quality filter.Rift Valley Fever:
In January 2007, there was an outbreak of RFV in the Kilimanjaro area. Consumption of unpasteurized milk and improperly cooked meat from infected cows led to a number of deaths in the area. Following the deaths, the sale of beef dropped sharply all over the country, despite the limited scope of the infection. In general, meat served in upscale restaurants is of superior quality, however, care should be taken when indulging in street foods or when in more remote areas.Insects and Animals
Tanzania has its fair share of venomous and deadly insects and animals, such as Black and Green Mambas, scorpions, spiders, stinging ants, centipedes, lions, sharks, and so on. You should take care when walking through high grass, when visiting national parks or shoving your hand under rocks or into dark holes, unless you know what your doing, but in actuality the likelihood of encountering these and other similar dangers is remote.
The insect/animal most residents fear is the mosquito.Medical Facilities
Dar es Salaam is served by a few clinics staffed by western trained physicians. However, procedures such as surgery may require evacuation to Nairobi or Johannesburg.IST Medical Clinic: Just off Haile Selassie Road past the Chole Road intersection, behind the International School of Tanganyika, Msasani Pinensula, Tel: +255 22 260 1307, Emergency: +255 754 783 393.Premier Care Clinic Limited: 259 Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road, Namanga, Kinondoni, P.O. Box 220, Dar es Salaam, Tel: +255 22 266 8385, Mobile: +255 748 254 642.Aga Khan Hospital: Corner of Ocean Road & Sea View Road, Tel: +255 22 211 5151.Respect
Tourists should wear modest or conservative attire in general, and especially in Zanzibar which is a conservative Muslim society. Western women especially should take care not to wear clothing that reveals too much skin. 'Kangas', affordable, brightly-colored wrap-around cloth, are available throughout the country and can serve as a discreet covering.
The Masai people with their colorful clothing are tempting targets for any tourist with a camera. However, they expect to be paid for it and you should always ask before you take pictures.
It is common practice among Swahili-speakers to use 'shikamoo' (prounounced 'she ka moe' and literally meaning, 'I hold your feet') when greeting elders or superiors. The usual response from an elder will be 'marahaba'. The 'shikamoo' equivalent in Zanzibar is 'chei chei'. The traveler will get along very well when using these verbal expressions of respect. In addition a title after the 'shikamoo' is also a useful indicator that you are not just a dumb tourist. 'shikamoo bwana' for the gents, and if you are addressing an elder female 'shikamoo mama'.
Tanzanians will also comment if you are doing any work while they are not with the phrase "pole na kazi" It literally mean I'm sorry you have to work. A simple "asante" or thanks will suffice in reply.
Many Tanzania sellers are persistent and ordinarily a simple shake of the head accompanied by an "asante sana" is enough. However, as a last resort a firm "Hapana", meaning "no", will do the trick. Tanzanians find the word "hapana" quite rude so please don't use it too casually only as a last resort. Whatever you do, do not tell someone you will come back and buy from them later when you have no intention to; better to be honest and say 'no' than have to avoid someone for days. They have a funny way of finding you when you have promised to visit their stall or shop!
The most polite way to refuse something is to say "sihitaji" - I don't need.Contact
Keeping in touch while traveling in Tanzania is rarely a problem. You can even get decent mobile phone reception in some national parks.Telephone calls
The "Tanzania Telecommunications Company Ltd" (TTCL) is the state owned telecom and operates all pay phones and landlines in Tanzania. As with many developing countries, fixed line are not affordable for most people. However, in the past five years the mobile network has blossomed throughout Africa and this is equally true of Tanzania. With many used mobile phones for sale and the very low cost of getting a SIM card, 2000 Tsh, this has proven to be a very popular choice with most Tanzanian. For many their first large purchase when they get a job is a mobile phone. The major mobile service providers operate all over the country and even in some of the most remote areas, although interruptions in service are common.Note:
If you find a taxi driver or tour guide you like, ask for his/her mobile number. This is often best way of reaching them.Using a mobile phone
If you have an "unlocked" Quadband GSM
mobile phone you can purchase a local SIM card for 2000 Tsh from a number of Tanzanian service providers. The most popular are Celtel
, and Tigo
is a new arrival on the mainland but its service is limited to Zanzibar, Dar es Salaam and Arusha.Air Time
You can recharge your "Prepaid" mobile phone account using "scratch-cards" which are available everywhere. Just look for shops or even small tables set up along the road with posters for the various mobile service providers. They come in the following denominations: 500, 1000, 5000, 10000, 20000, and 50000 Tsh. If you plan on making frequent calls outside of Africa you will need a minimum of 10000 Tsh.
; Making calls within Tanzania to a mobile phone: Dial "0 & (telephone number)"
or "+255 & (telephone number)"
; Making calls within Tanzania to a landline: Dial "0 & (city code) & (telephone number)"
or "+255 & (city code) & (telephone number)"
;* Telephone codes for the Tanzanian cities (These numbers are only used when calling landlines): Dar es Salaam (22), Morogoro & Mtwara (23), Zanzibar & Pemba (24), Mbeya (25), Iringa (26), Arusha & Tanga (27), and Mwanza (28)
; Making international calls: Dial "+ & (country code) & (area code, if any) & (telephone number)"Note:
In October 2006, Vodacom
changed the second digit, not counting the first "0" or the "+255" country code, in their phone numbers from "4" to "5", e.g.: 74
4 is now 75
4. Many magazines, books, travel guides and advertisements may not have made the necessary corrections. All Vodacom mobile numbers start with 744, 745 or 746 and should be changed to 754, 755 and 756.Internet
Internet cafés are more and more common throughout Tanzania. They are easy to find in major centers like Dar es Salaam and Arusha.
Unlike South Africa and Northern Africa, East African countries do not have a high capacity undersea cable which provides reliable and affordable telecommunications services. Currently, all telecommunications are routed through satellite links which are few, costly and unreliable when the weather turns bad.
Some mobile providers have started offering wireless internet service. Zantel, Vodacom and Celtel are the main providers. At this time service is limited to Dar es Salaam, Arusha and Zanzibar.
To use this service, you must first purchase a CDMA PCMCI Card or mobile receiver which plugs into your computer's USB port. This will set you back about 200000 Tsh. If you have an unlocked CDMA phone with a modem cable, that will also work.
Airtime is obtained using scratch cards just like mobile phones. Connection rates are about 60 Tsh for 1 Mb or $0.05 per Mb. So 1Gb of download and upload will set you back $50. Not cheap.EmergencyEmergency Services: 112Note:
In 2006, there was a huge scandal involving the emergency service number, which saw the resignation of the then Chief of Police. During an armed robbery at a popular Indian restaurant, an employee dialed 112 to notify the police that a crime was in progress. He let the phone ring for over 30 minutes before hanging up. The following day the media reported that the emergency number had been disconnected for over a month and the police had not advised the public.
Luckily the emergency number has been reactivated, however, if you can, it's probably better to go to the nearest police station, instead of dialing 112.
, officially the United Republic of Tanzania
(Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa. It is bordered by Kenya and Uganda on the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the west, and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique on the south. To the east it borders the Indian Ocean.
The country is named after Tanganyika, its mainland part, and the Zanzibar islands off its east coast. Tanganyika united with Zanzibar in 1964, forming the "United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar", which later the same year was renamed the "United Republic of Tanzania".
In 1996, government offices were transferred from Dar es Salaam to Dodoma, making Dodoma the country's political capital. Dar es Salaam remains as the principal commercial city.History
Tanzania is home to some of the oldest human settlements unearthed by archaeologists, including fossils of early humans found in and around Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, an area often referred to as "The Cradle of Mankind". These fossils include Paranthropus bones thought to be over 2 million years old, and the oldest known footprints of the immediate ancestors of humans, the Laetoli footprints, estimated to be about 3.6 million years old..Early history
Reaching back about 10,000 years, Tanzania is believed to have been populated by hunter-gatherer communities, probably Khoisan speaking people. Between three and five thousand years ago, they were joined by Cushitic-speaking people who came from the north – into which the Khoisan peoples were slowly absorbed. Cushitic peoples introduced basic techniques of agriculture, food production, and later, cattle farming.
About 2000 years ago, Bantu Speaking people began to arrive from western Africa in a series of migrations. These groups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization. They absorbed many of the Cushitic peoples who had preceded them, as well as most of the remaining Khoisan-speaking inhabitants. Later, Nilotic pastoralists arrived, and continued to immigrate into the area through to the 18th century. Indian Ocean trade
Beginning in the early first Millennium CE, regular trade with Arabia and Persia made the East African coast economically strong. Later, Islam was introduced. Because of the Arabcentric doctrine of Islam, some Arabic influences entered the language -- resulting in the emergence of the Swahili language, a member of the Bantu family of languages, with Arabic influences. All along the coast, as well as on the islands of the Zanzibar archipelago and Kilwa, many trading cities thrived. Between the 13th and 15th centuries, in a period known as the Shirazi Era, these cities flourished, with trade in ivory, gold and other goods extending as far away as India and China.). It also has beautiful national parks that remain undeveloped. Growth from 1991 to 1999 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Commercial production of natural gas from the Songo Songo island in the Indian Ocean off the Rufiji Delta commenced 2004, with natural gas being pumped in a pipeline to the commercial capital Dar es Salaam, with the bulk of it being converted to electricity by the public utility and private operators. A new gas field is being brought on stream in Mnazi Bay and its estimated reserves significantly exceed those of the Songo Songo gas field.
Recent public sector and banking reforms, and revamped and new legislative frameworks have all helped increase private sector growth and investment. Short-term economic progress also depends on curbing corruption and cutting back on unnecessary public spending.
Prolonged drought during the early years of the 21st century has severely reduced electricity generation capacity (some 60% of Tanzania's electricity supplies are generated by hydro-electric schemes). During 2006 Tanzania suffered a crippling series of "load-shedding" or power rationing because of the shortfall of generated power, largely because of insufficient hydro-electric generation. The impact of this power gap is estimated to have reduced national GDP growth by at least four percent to 5.9 for 2006. Plans to increase gas and coal fueled generation capacity are likely to take some years to implement, and growth is forecast to be increased to seven per cent per year, and perhaps eight or more.Demographics
Population distribution in Tanzania is extremely uneven. Density varies from 1 person per square kilometer (3/mi²) in arid regions to 51 per square kilometer (133/mi²) in the mainland's well-watered highlands to 134 per square kilometer (347/mi²) on Zanzibar. More than 80% of the population is rural. Dar es Salaam is the largest city and is the commercial capital; Dodoma, located in the center of Tanzania is the new capital and houses the Union's Parliament. Zanzibar Town houses the Zanzibar Parliament.
The African population consists of more than 120 ethnic groups, of which the Sukuma, Haya, Nyakyusa, Nyamwezi, and Chagga have more than 1 million members. Other groups include the Pare, Sambaa or Shambala and Ngoni. The majority of Tanzanians, including such large ethnic groups as the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, have Bantu origins. Groups of Nilotic or related origin include the nomadic Masai and the Luo, both of which are found in greater numbers in neighboring Kenya. Two small groups speak languages of the Khoisan family peculiar to the people of the Kalahari in southern Africa. Cushitic-speaking peoples, originally from the Ethiopian highlands, reside in a few areas of Tanzania. Other Bantu groups were refugees from Mozambique.
Although much of Zanzibar's African population came from the mainland, one group known as Shirazis claims its origins to be the supposed island's early Persian settlers. Non-Africans residing on the mainland and Zanzibar account for 1% of the total population. The Asian community, including Hindus, Sikhs, Shi'a and Sunni Muslims, Parsis and Goans, has declined by 50% in the past decade to 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 10,000 Europeans still reside in Tanzania. In the 1960s and 1970s thousands of Asians emigrated, frequently under duress. Often they attempted to emigrate to the United Kingdom (Britain).
Each ethnic group has its own language. No language is de jure official, but Swahili is the de facto official national language, used for intertribal communication and for official matters. After independence, English, the language of colonial administration during the era of British rule, was still used for some official issues, and was thus considered de facto official alongside Swahili. As official usage of English has greatly diminished over during the first thirty years following independence, and it was more common to regard Swahili as the only de facto official language. However the political reforms which turned Tanzania away from a closed and socialist environment and a centrally planned economy inevitably resulted in a dramatic opening up of the country. The attendant growth of the private sector and new investment has resulted in English having increasing importance, and there are a plethora of schools in which English is the medium of instruction. Universities all use English as the medium of instruction, which often causes problems for students who have previously only taken English as a subject in school. Other spoken languages are Indian languages, especially Gujarati, and Portuguese (both spoken by Mozambican blacks and Goans). Historically German was widely spoken during that colonial period, but few remain alive who remember that period.
Tanzania is a religiously divided society. It is hard to say which is the largest religion in Tanzania, since this question, together with tribal affiliation, has not been included in the national census. According to the CIA Factbook
, Muslims account for 35% of the population, an estimated 30% of the population is Christian, and 35% adheres to traditional faiths. On Zanzibar, by contrast, the population is 99% Muslim.Culture
Taarab Music is a fusion of pre-Islamic Swahili tunes sung in rhythmic poetic style spiced with general Islamic melodies. It is an extremely lively art form springing from a classical culture, still immensely popular with women, drawing all the time from old and new sources. Taarab forms a major part of the social life of the Swahili people along the coastal areas; especially Zanzibar, Tanga and even further in Mombasa and Malindi along the Kenya coast. Wherever the Swahili speaking people travelled, Tarabu culture moved with them. It has penetrated to as far as Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi in the interior of East Africa, where taarab groups compete in popularity with other western-music inspired groups.
For media station websites, see the Media section in #External links below.Foreign relations of Tanzania Military of Tanzania Stamps and postal history of TanzaniaTanzanian elections, 2005Tanzania Scouts AssociationTanzania Wildlife Research InstituteTransport in TanzaniaListsList of hospitals in TanzaniaList of Tanzanian companiesList of Tanzania-related topicsList of writers from TanzaniaList of famous TanzaniansExternal links
; GovernmentThe United Republic of Tanzania official siteTanzania without Poverty - A plain language guide to Tanzania's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
; MDAsPublic Service Management
; InstitutionsWipahs Humanitarian ServicesInternational School Moshi, Kilimanjaro & ArushaThe East AfricanTTB Tanzania Tourist BoardNDCTANAPA Tanzania National Parks AuthorityNational Land Use Planning CommissionICTThe National information and Communication TechnologiesDar es Salaam Stock ExchangeDAWASALake Victoria Environmental Management ProjectTRA Tanzania Revenue AuthorityNHC National Housing CorporationAICC Arusha International Conference CentreTanzania Socio-economic DatabaseTFDA Tanzania Food and drugs authorityEconomic and Social Research Foundation (ESRF)NBS National Bureau of Statistics TanzaniaNECTA National Examinations Council of TanzaniaDistrict Health Service and Health Sector Reform SecretariatTanzania Meteorological AgencyTIETanzania Institute of EducationNACP National AIDS Control ProgrammeREPOA Research on Poverty AlleviationHakikazi Catalyst Leading Civil Society OrganisationHKMU The Hubert Kairuki Memorial UniversityTIC The Tanzania Investment CentreEARD-CI Enterprise and Rural Development - Community Initiatives, an Arusha region micro-finance NGO
; Newsmyafricatoday.blogspot.com current news, events and statisticsPresident Jakaya Kikwete The Top headlines from the major TanzanianDaily News Tanzania StandardEast African Business Week business news for Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and BurundiIPP MediaThisDayArusha TimesAllAfrica.com - Tanzania news headline linksThe Express Online weekly newspaperTanzania News The Top headlines from the major Tanzanian newspapers
; Mediamyafricatoday.blogspot.com current news, events and statisticsTVT Televisheni ya TaifaTVZ Television ZanzibarITV Independent TelevisionStarTV Star Television5EATV Channel 5Tanga Television (TATV)Channel 10RTD Radio Tanzania Dar es SalaamRadio OneEast Africa RadioHabari Tanzania Tanzania news in Swahili
; Businessmyafricatoday.blogspot.com current news, events and statisticsConfederation of Tanzanian IndustriesCIA World Factbook - TanzaniaEast African Business Week business news for Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda and BurundiOpen Directory Project - Tanzania directory categoryUS State Department - Tanzania includes Background Notes, Country Study and major reportsDetailed map of Tanzania towns, rivers & lakes: map at University of Texas (2003)Tanzania Economic ForumTanzania Links
; OverviewsBBC News Country Profile - TanzaniaTanzania Links- Tanzania Websites- "Tanzania History"
; TourismTanzania detailed and up-to-date travel guide
; Wildlife and Protected AreasTanzania National Parks - TANAPAWildlife of Tanzania - photos