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In 1603, a Tokugawa shogunate (military dictatorship) ushered in a long period of isolation from foreign influence in order to secure its power. For 250 years this policy enabled Japan to enjoy stability and a flowering of its indigenous culture. Following the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854, Japan opened its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia. It occupied Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), and southern Sakhalin Island. In 1931-32 Japan occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. Japan attacked US forces in 1941 - triggering America's entry into World War II - and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and business executives. The economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth, but Japan still remains a major economic power, both in Asia and globally.

Great dive locations in Japan :

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The "Land of the Rising Sun" is the country where the past meets the future. Japanese culture stretches back millennia, yet has also adopted (and created) the latest modern fashions and trends.

Japan is a study in contrasts and contradictions. Many Japanese corporations dominate their industries, yet if you read the financial news it seems like Japan is practically bankrupt. Cities in Japan are as modern and high tech as anywhere else, but tumbledown wooden shacks can still be spotted next to glass fronted designer condominiums. On an average subway ride, you will see childishly cute character toys and violent pornography- sometimes enjoyed by the same passenger! Japan has beautiful temples and gardens which are often surrounded by garish signs and ugly buildings. In the middle of a modern skyscraper you might discover a sliding wooden door which leads to a traditional chamber with tatami mats, calligraphy, and tea ceremony. These juxtapositions mean you may often be surprised and rarely bored by your travels in Japan.

While geography is not destiny, the fact that Japan is located on islands on the outermost edge of Asia has had a profound influence on its history. Just close enough to mainstream Asia, yet far enough to keep itself separate, much of Japanese history has been the alternation of periods of closure and openness. Until recently, Japan has been able to turn on or off its connection to the rest of the world, internalizing foreign cultural influences in fits and starts. It is comparable with the relationship between Britain and the rest of Europe, but with a much wider channel.

Recorded Japanese history begins in the 5th century, although archeaological evidence of settlement stretches back 500,000 years and the mythical Emperor Jimmu is said to have founded the current Imperial line in the 7th century BC. The first strong Japanese state was centered in Nara (8th c.), moving later to Kyoto and Kamakura until Japan descended into the anarchy of the Warring States period in the 15th century. Tokugawa Ieyasu finally reunified the country in 1600 and founded the Tokugawa shogunate, a feudal state ruled from Edo, or modern-day Tokyo. A strict caste system was imposed, with the Shogun and his samurai warriors at the top of the heap and no social mobility permitted.

Tokugawa rule kept the country stable but stagnant with a policy of total isolation while the world around them rushed ahead. U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry's Black Ships arrived in Yokohama in 1854, forcing the country to open up to trade with the west. The resulting shock led to the collapse of the shogunate in the Meiji Restoration of 1867. Japan launched itself headlong into a drive to industrialize and modernize, which soon turned into a drive to expand and colonize its neighbors, culminating in the disastrous Second World War that saw 1.86 million Japanese and well over 10 million Chinese and other Asians die in battle, bombings, starvation and massacres. Forced to surrender in 1945 after the nuclear attacks of Hiroshima and Nagasaki,...

Japan , known as Nihon or Nippon (日本) in Japanese, is an island nation in East Asia.


Japan consists of four main islands and many smaller islands, notably Okinawa.
Honshu, by far the largest and most populated island, is typically divided into five (or more) regions. The other islands are not divided into sub-regions in this section, so they will constitute one region each. Thus, in total, the regions most commonly used are:

# Hokkaido - the snowy northern frontier of Japan
# Tohoku - northeastern Honshu, for seafood, skiing and hot springs
# Kanto - coastal plain including the cities of Tokyo and Yokohama
# Chubu - mountainous middle region dominated by the Japan Alps and Japan's fourth-largest city Nagoya
# Kansai - ancient capital of culture and commerce, including the cities of Osaka, Kyoto, Nara and Kobe
# Chugoku - westernmost Honshu, a rural region best known for the cities of Hiroshima and Shimonoseki
# Shikoku - the smallest of the Big 4, a destination for Buddhist pilgrims
# Kyushu - birthplace of Japanese civilization; largest cities Fukuoka and Kitakyushu
# Okinawa - semi-tropical southern island chain reaching out toward Taiwan


Japan has thousands of cities; these are nine of the most important to the traveler.
  • Tokyo - the capital of Japan, modern and densely populated.

  • Hiroshima - a large port city, the first city to be destroyed by an atom bomb
  • Kanazawa - a historic city on the west coast
  • Kyoto - an ancient capital of Japan, considered the cultural heart of the country, with many ancient Buddhist temples and gardens
  • Nagasaki - an ancient port city in Kyushu,the second city to be destroyed by an atom bomb
  • Nara - the first capital of a united Japan, with many Buddhist shrines, and historical buildings
  • Osaka - a large and dynamic city located in the Kansai region
  • Sapporo - the largest city in Hokkaido, famous for its snow festival
  • Sendai - the largest city in the Tohoku region, known as the city of forests due to its tree lined avenues and wooded hills.

  • Other destinations

    See Japan's Top 3 for some sights and places held in the high esteem by the Japanese themselves, and Off the beaten track in Japan for a selection of fascinating but less well known destinations throughout the country.
  • Mount Fuji — 3776 meters high which is the highest mountain in Japan and is it the iconic snow-topped volcano
  • 88 Temple Pilgrimage — an arduous 1,647-kilometer trail around the island of Shikoku
  • Narrow Road to the Deep North — a route around northern Japan immortalized by Japan's most famous haiku poet

  • Understand

    The "Land of the Rising Sun" is the country where the past meets the future. Japanese culture stretches back millennia, yet has also adopted (and created) the latest modern fashions and trends.

    Japan is a study in contrasts and contradictions. Many Japanese corporations dominate their industries, yet if you read the financial news it seems like Japan is practically bankrupt. Cities in Japan are as modern and high tech as anywhere else, but tumbledown wooden shacks can still be spotted next to glass fronted designer condominiums. On an average subway ride, you will see childishly cute character toys and violent pornography- sometimes enjoyed by the same passenger! Japan has beautiful temples and gardens which are often surrounded by garish signs and ugly buildings. In the middle of a modern skyscraper you might discover a sliding wooden door which leads to a traditional chamber with tatami mats, calligraphy, and tea ceremony. These juxtapositions mean you may often be surprised and rarely bored by your travels in Japan.

    While geography is not destiny, the fact that Japan is located on islands on the outermost edge of Asia has had a profound influence on its history. Just close enough to mainstream Asia, yet far enough to keep itself separate, much of Japanese history has been the alternation of periods of closure and openness. Until recently, Japan has been able to turn on or off its connection to the rest of the world, internalizing foreign cultural influences in fits and starts. It is comparable with the relationship between Britain and the rest of Europe, but with a much wider channel.

    Recorded Japanese history begins in the 5th century, although archeaological evidence of settlement stretches back 500,000 years and the mythical Emperor Jimmu is said to have founded the current Imperial line in the 7th century BC. The first strong Japanese state was centered in Nara (8th c.), moving later to Kyoto and Kamakura until Japan descended into the anarchy of the Warring States period in the 15th century. Tokugawa Ieyasu finally reunified the country in 1600 and founded the Tokugawa shogunate, a feudal state ruled from Edo, or modern-day Tokyo. A strict caste system was imposed, with the Shogun and his samurai warriors at the top of the heap and no social mobility permitted.

    Tokugawa rule kept the country stable but stagnant with a policy of total isolation while the world around them rushed ahead. U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry's Black Ships arrived in Yokohama in 1854, forcing the country to open up to trade with the west. The resulting shock led to the collapse of the shogunate in the Meiji Restoration of 1867. Japan launched itself headlong into a drive to industrialize and modernize, which soon turned into a drive to expand and colonize its neighbors, culminating in the disastrous Second World War that saw 1.86 million Japanese and well over 10 million Chinese and other Asians die in battle, bombings, starvation and massacres. Forced to surrender in 1945 after the nuclear attacks of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan was for the first time in its history occupied by the victorious Allies. The Emperor kept his throne but was turned into a constitutional monarch. Thus converted to pacifism and democracy, with the U.S. taking care of defense, Japan now directed its prodigious energies into peaceful technology and proceeded to conquer the world's marketplaces with an endless stream of cars and consumer electronics, rising from the ashes to attain the second-largest gross national product in the world.

    As an island nation shut off from the rest of the world for a long time, Japan is very homogeneous, with around 98% of the population ethnically Japanese. The largest minority are Koreans, around 1 million strong, many in their 3rd or 4th generations. There are also sizable populations of Chinese, Filipinos and Brazilians. Indigenous ethnic minorities include the Ainu, driven north over the centuries and now found only on Hokkaido, numbering around 50,000 (although the number varies greatly depending on the exact definition used), and the Ryukyuan people of Okinawa.

    The Japanese are well known for their politeness. Many Japanese are thrilled to have visitors to their country and they will be incredibly helpful to a foreigner looking lost and bewildered. On the other hand many are not used to dealing with foreigners — commonly known as gaijin (外人, outsider), or gaikokujin (外国人, foreigner--a more polite phrasing) — and you may find them reserved and reluctant to communicate.


    The most important holiday in Japan is New Year (お正月 Oshōgatsu), which pretty much shuts down the country between December 29 and January 3. Japanese head home to their families (which means massive transport congestion), eat festive foods and head out to the neighborhood temple at the stroke of midnight to wish in the New Year. Many Japanese often travel to other countries as well, and prices for airfares are very high.

    In March or April, Japanese head out en masse for hanami (花見, lit. "flower viewing"), a festival of outdoors picnics and drunken revelry in parks, cleverly disguised as cherry blossom (桜 sakura) viewing. The exact timing of the famously fleeting blossoms varies from year to year and Japan's TV channels follow the progress of the cherry blossom front from south to north obsessively.

    The longest holiday is Golden Week (April 27 to May 6), when there are four public holidays within a week and everybody goes on extended vacation. Trains are crowded, flight and hotel prices are jacked up to multiples of normal prices, making this a bad time to travel in Japan, but the weeks immediately before or after GW are excellent choices.

    Summer brings a spate of festivals designed to distract people from the intolerable heat and humidity (comparable to the US Midwest). There are local festivals (祭 matsuri) and impressive fireworks competitions (花火 hanabi) throughout the country. Tanabata (七夕), on July 7th (or early August in some places), commemorates a story of star-crossed lovers who could only meet on this day.
    The largest summer festival is Obon (お盆), held in mid-July in eastern Japan (Kanto) and mid-August in western Japan (Kansai), which honors the departed spirits of one's ancestors. Everybody heads home to visit village graveyards, meaning that transport is packed.

    National holidays
    The following list shows the dates of Japanese national holidays. Lunar holidays such as equinoxes may vary by a day or two; the list below is accurate for 2007. Holidays that fall on a weekend may be observed with a bank holiday on the following Monday. Keep in mind that most Japanese people take additional time off around New Year's, during Golden Week, and during Obon.
  • January 1 - New Year's Day (ganjitsu 元日)
  • Second Monday of January - Coming-of-Age Day (seijin no hi 成人の日)
  • February 11 - National Foundation Day (kenkoku kinenbi 建国記念の日)
  • March 21 - Vernal Equinox Day (shunbun no hi 春分の日)
  • April 29 - Showa Day (showa no hi 昭和の日)
  • May 3 - Constitution Day (kenpō kinnenbi 憲法記念日)
  • May 4 - Greenery Day (midori no hi 緑の日)
  • May 5 - Children's Day (kodomo no hi 子供の日)
  • Third Monday of July - Marine Day (umi no hi 海の日)
  • Third Monday of September - Respect-for-the-Aged Day (keirō no hi 敬老の日)
  • September 23 - Autumnal Equinox Day (shuubun no hi 秋分の日)
  • Second Monday of October - Sports Day (taiiku no hi 体育の日)
  • November 3 - Culture Day (bunka no hi 文化の日)
  • November 23 - Labor Thanksgiving Day (kinrō kansha no hi 勤労感謝の日)
  • December 23 - The Emperor's Birthday (tennō tanjōbi 天皇誕生日)

  • The Japanese calendar
    The Imperial era year, which counts from the year of ascension of the Emperor, is often used for reckoning dates in Japan, including transportation timetables and store receipts. The current era is Heisei (平成) and Heisei 19 corresponds to 2007. The year may be written as "H19" or just "19", so "19/1/26" is January 26, 2007. Western years are also well understood and frequently used.

    Japan has two dominant religious traditions: Shinto (神道) is the ancient animist religion of traditional Japan. At just over twelve hundred years in Japan, Buddhism is the more recent imported faith. Christianity, introduced by European missionaries, was widely persecuted during the feudal era but is now accepted, and a small percentage of Japanese are Christian.

    Generally speaking, the Japanese are not a particularly religious people. While they regularly visit shrines and temples to offer coins and make silent prayers, religious faith and doctrine play a small role (if any) in the life of the average Japanese. Thus it would be impossible to try to represent what percentage of the population is Shinto versus Buddhist, or even Christian. According to a famous poll, Japan is 80% Shinto and 80% Buddhist, and another oft-quoted dictum states that Japanese are Shinto when they live, as weddings and festivals are typically Shinto, but Buddhist when they die, since funerals usually use Buddhist rites. Most Japanese accept a little bit of every religion. Christianity is evident almost exclusively in a commercial sense. In season, variations of Santa Claus, pine trees and other non-religious Christmas symbols are on display in malls and shopping centers throughout metropolitan areas.

    At the same time, Shinto and Buddhism have had an enormous influence on the country's history and cultural life. The Shinto religion focuses on the spirit of the land, and is reflected in the country's exquisite gardens and peaceful shrines deep in ancient forests. When you visit a shrine (jinja 神社) with its simple torii (鳥居) gate, you are seeing Shinto customs and styles. If you see an empty plot of land with some white paper suspended in a square, that's a Shinto ceremony to dedicate the land for a new building. Buddhism in Japan has branched out in numerous directions over the centuries. Nichiren (日蓮) is currently the largest branch of Buddhist belief, and many westerners are introduced to Japanese Buddhism through Soka Gakkai (sōkagakkai 創価学会), a Nichiren sect that is somewhat controversial for its evangelical zeal and its involvement in Japanese politics. Westerners are probably most familiar with Zen (禅) Buddhism, which was introduced to Japan in the 14th and 15th centuries. Zen fit the aesthetic and moral sensibilities of medieval Japan, influencing arts such as flower-arranging (ikebana 生け花), tea ceremony (sadō 茶道), ceramics, painting, calligraphy, poetry, and the martial arts. Over the years, Shinto and Buddhism have intertwined considerably. You will find them side by side in cities, towns, and people's lives. It's not at all unusual to find a sparse Shinto torii standing before an elaborate Buddhist o-tera (temple お寺).


    Karaoke can be found virtually every Japanese city. It's pronounced karah-okay in Japan - many natives won't have any idea what you're talking about if you use the Western carry-oh-key. Most karaoke places occupy several floors of a building. You and your friends have a room to yourself - no strangers involved - and the standard hourly rate often includes all-you-can-drink booze, with refills ordered through a phone on the wall or through the karaoke machine itself. The major chains all have good English-language song selections. Old folks prefer singing enka ballads at small neighborhood bars.

    Also ubiquitous are pachinko parlors. Pachinko is a joyless form of gambling that involves dropping little steel balls into a machine; prizes are awarded depending on where they land. The air inside most pachinko parlors is certifiably toxic from nicotine, sweat and despair - not to mention the ear-splitting noise. Give it a miss.

    Japan's national game is Go, a strategy board game. By no means everyone plays, but the game has newspaper columns, TV, and professional players. The game is also played in the West, and there is a large and active English wiki discussing it . On a sunny day, the Tennoji ward of Osaka is a good place to join a crowd watching two Go masters go at it.

    The Japanese are proud of their four seasons (and a surprising number believe the phenomenon is unique to Japan), but the tourist with a flexible travel schedule should try to aim for two of them.
  • Spring is one of the best times of year to be in Japan. The temperatures are warm but not hot, there's not too much rain, and March-April brings the justly famous cherry blossoms (sakura) and is a time of revelry and festivals. In early March, the Japan Meteorological Agency announces predictions about when the blooming will begin .

  • Summer starts with a dreary rainy season (known as tsuyu or baiu) in June and turns into a steambath in July-August, with extreme humidity and the temperature heading as high as 40°C. Avoid, or do as the Japanese do and head to northern Hokkaido or the mountains of Chubu and Tohoku to escape. The upside, though, is a slew of fireworks shows (花火大会 hanabi taikai) and festivals big and small.

  • Autumn, starting in September, is also an excellent time to be in Japan. Temperatures and humidity become more tolerable, fair days are common and fall colors can be just as impressive as cherry blossoms. However, in early autumn typhoons often hit the southern parts of Japan and bring everything to a standstill.

  • Winter is a good time to go skiing or hot-spring hopping, but as the Japanese have yet to figure out the wonders of central heating, it's often miserably cold indoors. Heading south to Okinawa provides some relief. There is usually heavy snow in Hokkaido and northeast Japan due to the cold wind blasts from Siberia.

  • Further reading
    There are multitudes of books written on Japan. Some great, some amazingly un-great. A good place to begin is one of the many recommended reading lists such as this one on or sites like The Crazy Japan Times, Japan Review or Visitor. Some recommended books include:
  • 'Untangling My Chopsticks', by Victoria Abbott Riccardi. Set mainly in Kyoto.
  • 'My Mother is a Tractor', by Nicholas Klar. A former English teacher with a witty and informative take on Japanese society. Written from the depths of the Japanese countryside.
  • 'Dave Barry Does Japan', by Dave Barry. The very funny Dave Barry with his take on Japan. Written during a rollicking three week tour. Not much cultural insight, but an excellent introduction to Japan's wackier side.
  • Hitching Rides with Buddha ', by Will Fergusen is about a Canadian English teacher who hitches rides across the country, following the blooming cherry blossoms. At times hilariously funny and deathly serious, it gives a very honest evaluation of all sorts of aspects of Japanese culture.
  • Culture Shock: Japan' A part of the 'Culture Shock' series, this is an excellent overview of the culture and lifestyle of the Japanese. A good resource for a long or work-related stay in Japan or even for interaction with Japanese people.

  • Get in

    Citizens of 59 countries, including most Western nations, do not need a visa to visit Japan and can obtain a 90-day "landing permission" on arrival (many European nationalities are permitted up to 180 days). All others must obtain a visa prior to arrival. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs maintains an online Guide to Japanese Visas with current information.

    One customs issue that trips up some unwary travellers is that some over-the-counter medications, notably pseudoephedrine (Actifed, Sudafed, Vicks inhalers) and codeine (some cough medications) are prohibited in Japan. Some prescription medicines are also banned, even if you have a prescription. See Japan Customs for an overview, or check with the nearest Japanese embassy or consulate for details.

    By plane
    Most intercontinental flights to Japan arrive at either Narita Airport (NRT) near Tokyo or Kansai Airport (KIX) near Osaka; a smaller number use Chubu International Airport (NGO) near Nagoya. All three are a significant distance away from their respective city centres, but are linked to their respective regional rail networks and also have numerous limousine bus services to nearby destinations. Other airports that serve scheduled international flights include Hiroshima (HIJ), Fukuoka (FUK) and Sapporo New Chitose (CTS). Tokyo's other airport, Haneda Airport (HND), formally the Tokyo International Airport is the busiest in Asia but primarily serves domestic flights, the only international flights being shuttle services to and from Gimpo Airport in Seoul.

    There is an airport in just about every sizable city, although most other airports only offer domestic flights and a few services to China and Korea. A popular alternative for travelers to these cities is to fly via Seoul on Korean Air or Asiana Airlines: this can even be cheaper than connecting in Japan.

    Both Narita and Kansai airports are generally easy to get through and not particularly crowded assuming you avoid the main holiday periods - namely New Year's (end of December - beginning of January), Golden Week (end of April - beginning of May) and Obon (Mid-August). If you travel during these busy periods expect things to be both more hectic and more expensive.

    Japan's two major airlines are Japan Airlines (JAL) and All Nippon Airways (ANA). Northwest Airlines and United Airlines also operate sizable hubs at Narita, with flights to many destinations in the US and Asia.

    By boat
    There are a number of international ferries to Japan. In roughly descending order of practicality, these are:
  • Busan-Fukuoka: JR Kyushu Ferry, 092-281-2315 (Japan) or 051-469-0778 (Korea), operates hydrofoil service several times each day, which takes about 3 and a half hours and costs ¥13,000 one way. Camelia Line, 092-262-2323 (Japan) or 051-466-7799 (Korea), operates a ferry which takes about 8 hours and starts at ¥9,000; if overnight, the ferry may stop and wait in front of Busan Port in the morning until Korean Immigration opens up.
  • Busan-Shimonoseki: Kanbu Ferry, 0832-24-3000 (Japan) or 051-464-2700 (Korea), operates daily service. 13 1/2 hours; ¥9,000+.
  • Busan-Osaka: Barnstar Line, 06-6271-8830 (Japan) or 051-469-6131 (Korea), offers thrice weekly service. 18 hours; ¥13,700+.
  • Shanghai-Osaka/Kobe: Japan-China Ferry, 078-321-5791 (Japan) or 021-6326-4357 (China), offers thrice weekly service. 45 hours; ¥20,000+.
  • Tianjin-Kobe: China Express Line, 03-3537-3107 (Japan) or 022-2420-5777 (China), offers weekly service. 50 hours; ¥22,000+.
  • Qingdao-Shimonoseki: Orient Ferry, 0832-32-6615 (Japan) or 0532-8387-1160 (China), offers thrice weekly service. 38 hours, ¥15,000+.
  • Kaohsiung/Taipei-Okinawa-Osaka-Nagoya: Arimura Sangyo, 098-860-1980 (Japan) or 2-27715911 (Taiwan), operates two ships on this route, both of which call at the islands of Ishigaki and Miyako at various points during the journey. A Taipei-Nagoya trip takes about four days and costs ¥35,000+.
  • Sakhalin-Wakkanai: Higashi-Nihonkai Ferry, 011-518-2780 (Sapporo office). 5 1/2 hours; ¥21,000+. Note that service is suspended from December through April due to sea ice.

  • Except for the ferries from Busan to Fukuoka and Shimonoseki, these are generally uncompetitive with discounted air tickets, as prices are high, schedules infrequent (and unreliable) and travel times long.

    Get around

    Japan has one of the world's best transport systems, and getting around is usually a breeze, with the train being overwhelmingly the popular option. Although traveling around Japan is expensive when compared to other Asian countries, there are a variety of passes that can be used to limit the damage.

    For sorting through transport schedules and fares, Hitachi's Hyperdia is an invaluable companion, with versions available for most major operating systems, and is also usable online . Jorudan and NTT Townpage both provide a useful English-language web versions. The paper version of this is the Daijikokuhyō (大時刻表), a phonebook-sized tome available for browsing in every train station and most hotels, but it's a little challenging to use as the content is entirely in microscopic Japanese.

    In Japanese cities, a place's address is useful for mail, but it's nearly useless for actually getting there. Most places are described in terms of the walking distance from the nearest train station, and relative to local landmarks. Business cards very often have little maps printed on the back to make navigation easier (at least if you can read Japanese). In addition, many train stations have maps of the local area that can help you find a destination if it is reasonably close to the station.

    By rail
    Japan's railways are fast, highly efficient and cover the majority of the country, making this the transport mode of choice for most visitors. The first and most confusing aspect of Japan's railway system (especially within large cities like Tokyo) that you will encounter is the overlap of several private railway networks with the JR network. Tokyo also has two separate metro systems to add to the confusion. Being aware of this one fact will substantially reduce the confusion you experience trying to understand railway maps and find your way around.

    North Americans are usually astounded to find that Japanese trains, like other forms of mass transit, nearly always leave and arrive promptly on time, following the published schedule to the minute. If you are late, you will miss the train!

    Note that most trains do not operate 24 hours, for example in Tokyo they do not run between 1:00 AM and 5:00 AM roughly. If you are planning to be out late and are relying on the train to get home, be sure to find out when the last train is leaving. Many bars and clubs are open until the first train runs again in the morning, so keep this in mind as another option.

    JR Network
    The JR network is extensive as one would expect from what used to be the national rail system (now privately owned and split into regional companies). The JR group operates the Shinkansen lines, as well as a multitude of regional and urban mass transit lines. In the countryside the group companies also run bus services to connect places that don't have a rail service. However, the JR network is not a monopoly and particularly within major conurbations there are other private rail networks.

    Interestingly, people refer to JR in Japanese by its English initials, "Jay-arru." Hopefully even non-English speakers can help you find a station if you ask.

    =Japan Rail Pass=
    By far the best option for visitors who plan to do a lot of travelling is the Japan Rail Pass , which allows unlimited travel on almost all JR trains, including the Shinkansen, for a fixed period of 7, 14 or 21 days. The main exceptions are the Nozomi superexpress (not allowed), sleeper seats (surcharge payable) and the rare case where JR trains travel on non-JR track. Whereas a single round trip from Tokyo to Osaka costs almost ¥29,000, the 7-day Rail Pass is ¥28,300. The 14-day/21-day pass is ¥45,100/57,700. This can only be purchased outside of Japan from specific vendors. Upon purchase, you are given a Exchange Order, which can be exchanged at most larger JR stations in Japan, including all of the stations nearest to airports, for the Rail Pass itself. At the time of exchange, you will need to have your passport with you, and know the date upon which you will want the Rail Pass to start.

    Regional JR companies also sell their own passes that cover only parts of the country. They're generally poorer value and you'll have to plan pretty carefully to make them pay off: in particular, none are valid for travel between Tokyo and Kyoto/Osaka. Unlike the main Rail Pass, these can only be purchased in the country (at any major JR station), but they're still for most part limited to visitors. From north to south:
  • Hokkaido: JR Hokkaido Rail Pass
  • Tohoku: JR East Rail Pass (also covers Kanto)
  • Chubu: none
  • Chugoku: JR West San'yo Area Pass (also covers Kansai and parts of Kyushu)
  • Shikoku: Shikoku Free Kippu, Shikoku Saihakken Kippu
  • Kyushu: Kyushu Rail Pass

  • When you make any rail journey (even if you obtained a ticket using your Rail Pass), you will need to show the Rail Pass at the manned ticket barrier. This is inconvenient if there is a queue, but it is usually acceptable to flash your pass at the ticket-taker as you slip past the other customers transacting business with JR.

    =Seishun 18 Ticket=
    The Seishun 18 Ticket (青春18きっぷ Seishun jÅ«hachi kippu) is the best deal for travel in Japan, offering five days of unlimited train travel for just ¥11,500. Better yet, unlike the Rail Pass, the days do not have to be consecutive. You can even split a ticket so that (for example) one person uses it for two days and another for three days. The main catches are that tickets are only valid on local trains and that tickets are valid only during school holidays (March-April, July-September, December-January), so you need good timing and plenty of time on your hands to use it.

    See also: Seishun 18 Ticket

    =Buying a ticket=
    If you do not have a JR pass then buying a ticket is probably the most complicated thing you can do. If you are travelling long distances and you are at a major station then there will be an obvious travel section where you can buy your ticket from a human being — look for the little green sign of a figure relaxing in a chair or ask for the midori no madoguchi (みどりの窓口, literally "green window"). Since you probably need to know the train times and may want to reserve a seat as well this is a good thing. Generally speaking you can make your desires known by means of handwaving and pointing at destinations if the staff are unable to speak English. Writing down information helps as most Japanese have a much easier time reading English than hearing it.

    On the other hand if you are at a local station (or a subway station) you will have more difficulty as you nearly always have to buy it using a machine whose instructions are in Japanese (although newer machines have an English mode). These machines do not take credit cards. Fortunately this is exactly the place where looking utterly bewildered is liable to lead to some nice Japanese offering to help. If they do then you are in luck, if not then here are some hints.

    Firstly there is usually a big map above all the machines which shows the current station in red, often marked with "当駅" (tōeki). Around it will be all other stations you can get to with a price below them. The nearer stations have the smaller numbers (e.g. the closest stations will probably be about ¥140, more distant ones rising to perhaps ¥2000. If you recognise the characters of the station you want to get to then make a note of the amount you should pay and place that amount (or more) into the machine using coins or notes (most machines take ¥1000 notes, some also take ¥5000 and ¥10000 notes) the price you want will show up as one of the buttons to press. Note that some machines have large black buttons with nothing written on them. These are for different fare levels. Press the buttons until your fare level shows up, insert the money, and take your ticket. If you can't figure out the price then buy a minimum fare ticket and pay when you arrive at your destination. You can either present your ticket to the staff at the gate, or pay the balance at the "Fare Adjustment" machine. Look for a small ticket vending kiosk near the exit, but still inside the gate. Insert your minimum fare ticket and pay the balance indicated on the screen.

    At bigger stations, you will probably have the choice of more than one train line, or more than one company operating the lines. Therefore, always first find the line you want to use, and then get your ticket from the nearest machine, instead of jumping on the first ticket machine next to the station's entrance. Otherwise you might end up with a ticket for a different company and/or line. While you can usually choose your platform after going through the gate, and thereby activating your ticket, at smaller stations this might not be the case. If you notice too late that you need to get to another platform, you might not be able to get out anymore without invalidating your ticket. So always have a good look at the signposts at every station.

    =Train types=

    JR pioneered the famous Bullet Train, known in Japanese as Shinkansen (新幹線), and with speeds nudging 300 kilometers per hour (360 km/h in the near future), these remain the fastest way to travel around the country. Note that Shinkansen do not run at night, and eg. the last departures from Tokyo towards Kyoto and Osaka are around 9 PM.

    The most important, most-traveled shinkansen route in the country is the Tokaido Shinkansen, operated by JR Central, which links Tokyo with Nagoya, Kyoto and Osaka. This line continues past Osaka as the San'yo Shinkansen, operated by JR West. Trains on the San'yo reach all the way to Fukuoka's Hakata station on the island of Kyushu, with stops at cities such as Okayama and Hiroshima.

    On the Tokaido and San'yo Shinkansen, there are three types of services, reflecting the number of stops that the train makes:
  • Nozomi (のぞみ)

  • Nozomi is the fastest service, and is the primary service that runs through both the Tokaido and San'yo Shinkansen lines, though some other Nozomi trains run only between Tokyo and Osaka. A one-seat journey on the Nozomi from Tokyo to Hakata takes five hours. Seat reservations are required for all but three cars on the train. A small surcharge on top of the Shinkansen fare is required. Most importantly for tourists, the Japan Rail Pass is NOT valid on Nozomi trains.
  • Hikari (ひかり)

  • Hikari is the next fastest service, but the fastest that is valid with the Japan Rail Pass. On the Tokaido Shinkansen, there are usually two trains per hour which depart from Tokyo. One train terminates in Osaka, and the other continues on the San'yo Shinkansen, terminating in Okayama. Separate Hikari services, known as the Hikari Rail Star (ひかりレールスター), operate on the San'yo route from Osaka to Hakata. Therefore, a Japan Rail Pass user will have to switch once in order to cover a journey such as Tokyo to Hiroshima.
  • Kodama (こだま)

  • The Kodama service, also valid under the Japan Rail Pass, is the all-stations service which stops at every shinkansen station on the route. Tokaido Shinkansen Kodama services generally run from Tokyo to Osaka, or Tokyo to Nagoya. Separate all-station Kodama services run on the San'yo Shinkansen. Of historical note is that the San'yo Kodama services still use Series 0 shinkansen trains, which date back to the national opening of the Shinkansen in 1964. These Series 0 trains are set to be withdrawn from service by 2008.
    Other JR services, particularly suburban ones, use the following generic labels:
  • Regular (普通 futsÅ« or 各駅 kakueki) - local service, stops at every station
  • Rapid (快速 kaisoku) - skips approximately 2 out of 3 stops, no surcharge
  • Express (急行 kyÅ«kō) - skips approximately 2 out of 3 stops, requires a surcharge
  • Liner (ライナー rainaa) - skips approximately 2 out of 3 kyuko stops, requires a surcharge
  • Limited Express (特急 tokkyÅ«) - skips approximately 2 out of 3 kyuko stops, requires a surcharge and usually a reserved seat as well

  • Express services may offer first-class Green Car seats. Given that the surcharge of almost 50% gets you little more than a bit of extra leg room, most passengers opt for regular seats. However, if you really need to ride a particular train for which the regular seats are full, the Green Car is an alternative. The JR pass is available in two types "Ordinary", which you will have to pay the surcharge to use the Green Car, and "Green", which includes Green Car seats at no additional charge.

    Smoking is not allowed on suburban trains. While it is currently permitted on long-distance services in designated cars and vestibules, JR companies are starting to ban smoking on many routes.

    Presently, smoking is not permitted on nearly all JR trains in Hokkaido and Kyushu, along with all JR East Shinkansen services north of Tokyo and most JR limited express trains in the Tokyo area, including the Narita Express to/from Narita Airport. The new N700-series bullet trains, now entering service on Tokaido and San'yo Shinkansen Nozomi runs, have segregated smoking compartments within the train; smoking is not permitted in the seating areas.

    Usually non-smoking trains are marked in timetables with the universal no-smoking sign, or with the Japanese kanji for no smoking (禁煙; kin'en). Note that if you do not smoke, sitting in a smoking car for a long trip can be very unpleasant.

    =Making a reservation=
    On Shinkansen and tokkyu trains, some of the carriages require passengers to have reserved their seats in advance (指定席 shiteiseki). For example, on the 16-carriage Hikari service on the Tokaido Shinkansen, only five of the carriages permit non-reserved seating, and all but one of those are non-smoking (禁煙車 kin'ensha). On a busy train, making a reservation in advance can ensure a comfortable journey.

    Making a reservation is surprisingly easy, and is strongly advised for popular journeys (such as travelling from Tokyo to Kyoto on a Friday evening, or taking a train from Nagoya to Takayama). Look out for the JR Office at the train station, which bears a little green logo of a figure relaxing in a chair - and ask to make a reservation when you buy your ticket. The reservation can be made anywhere from a month in advance to literally minutes before the train leaves.

    If you are a Japan Rail Pass holder, simply go to the JR Office, and present your Rail Pass when requesting a reservation for your journey. The ticket that you are given will not allow you to pass through the automated barriers though - you'll still need to present your Japan Rail Pass at the manned barrier to get to the train.

    Because there is a surcharge for reserving a seat, a nonreserved ticket may be preferable to a reserved ticket, particularly if you are boarding at Tokyo or another originating station where all the seats will be open anyway.

    Private railways
    If the option is there for your journey, the private railways are often cheaper than JR for an equivalent journey. However this is not always the case as changing from one network to another generally increases the price. Most private railways are connected to department store chains of the same name (e.g. Tokyu in Tokyo) and do an excellent job of filling in the gaps in the suburbs of the major cities. Also note that private railways may interpret the service classes above differently, with some providing express services at no additional charge.

    Kobe, Kyoto, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Sendai, Fukuoka, Tokyo and Yokohama also have subway (underground) services. For seeing the sights within a particular city,
    many offer a one day pass, often between 500 and 1000 yen for an adult. Tokyo has several types of day passes, which cover some subway lines but not others. The full Tokyo subway pass (which does not include the JR Yamanote Line) is 1000 yen.

    By plane
    Tokyo's Narita Airport handles a few domestic flights, but most Kanto area flights within Japan leave from Haneda (HND) to the south of the city. Similarly, while there are a few domestic flights from Kansai International Airport, more Kansai area flights within Japan use Itami (ITM) to the north of Osaka or Kobe's airport. Narita to Haneda and Kansai to Itami is quite a trek, so allow at least three and preferably four hours to transfer. Chubu, on the other hand, does have some domestic flights and was built from the ground up for easy interchange.

    List prices for domestic flights are very expensive, but significant discounts are available if purchased in advance. Both of Japan's largest carriers, Japan Airlines (JAL, 日本航空 Nihon KōkÅ«, ) and All Nippon Airways (ANA, 全日空 ZennikkÅ«, ) offer "Visit Japan" fares where the purchaser of an international return ticket to Japan can fly a number of domestic segments anywhere in the country for only about ¥10,000 (plus tax) each. These are a particularly good deal for travel to Hokkaido or the remote southern islands of Okinawa. Some blackout periods or other restrictions during peak travel seasons may apply.

    The low-cost carrier concept has yet to make significant inroads into Japan, but Air DO () provides a little much-needed competition for routes from Tokyo to Sapporo and Asahikawa on Hokkaido, while Skymark () flies from Tokyo to points in Kyushu and Shikoku.

    ANA, JAL, and their subsidiaries offer a special standby card, the Skymate Card, to young passengers (up to the age of 22). With the card, passengers can fly standby at half of the full published fare, which is usually less than the equivalent express train fare. The card can be obtained from any JAL or ANA ticket counter with a passport-sized photo and a one-time fee of ¥1,000

    By boat
    Given that Japan is an island nation, boats are a surprisingly uncommon means of transport, as all the major islands are linked together by bridges and tunnels. While there are some long-distance ferries linking Okinawa and Hokkaido to the mainland, the fares are usually more expensive than discounted airline tickets and pretty much the sole advantage is that you can take your car with you.

    For some smaller islands, however, boats may well be the only practical option. Hovercrafts and jet ferries are fast but expensive, with prices varying between ¥2000-5000 for an hour-long trip. Slow cargo boats are more affordable, a rule of thumb being ¥1000 per hour in second class, but departures are infrequent. There are also some inexpensive and convenient short-distance intercity ferries such as the Aomori-Hakodate ferry.

    These boats are typically divided into classes, where second class (ï¼’ç­‰ nitō) is just a giant expanse of tatami mat, first class (1等 ittō) gets you a comfy chair in large shared room and only special class (特等 tokutō) gets you a private cabin. Vending machines and simple restaurant fare are typically available on board, but on longer trips (particularly in second class) the primary means of entertainment is alcoholic — this can be fun if you're invited in, but less so if you're trying to sleep.

    By bus
    Highway buses
    Long-distance highway buses (ハイウェイバス haiwei basu) serve many of the inter-city routes covered by trains at significantly lower prices, but take much longer than the Shinkansen. Especially on the route between Tokyo and Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe triangle the high competition broke down the prices: as low as ¥3900 one-way. There is a multitude of operators, including Star Express, Kansai Bus as well as companies of the JR group.
    Note that your JR Rail Pass may be valid for JR buses (although choosing the bus instead of the Shinkansen or any Express train for the same trip would be a very akward choice in terms of comfort and speed).

    Many of these are overnight runs (夜行バス yakō basu) which allows you to save on a night's accommodation. It may be worth it to pay a premium to get a better seat; remember that it's less fun to sightsee after a sleepless night. Look out for 3列シート sanretsu shiito, meaning there are only three seats per row instead of four. Also note that intercity buses usually have significantly less legroom than intercity trains, so passengers over about 175cm may be uncomfortable.

    Local buses
    You won't need to use local buses (路線バス rosen basu) much in the major cities, but they're common in smaller towns and the idiosyncratic payment system is worth a mention. On most buses, you're expected to board from the back and grab a little numbered slip as you enter, often just a white piece of paper automatically stamped by the dispenser as you pull it. In the front of the bus, above the driver, is an electronic board displaying numbers and prices below, which march inexorably higher as the bus moves on. When it's time to get off, you press the stop button, match your numbered slip to the electronic board's current price, deposit the slip and corresponding payment in the fare machine next to the driver, then exit through the front door. Note that you must pay the exact fare: to facilitate this, the machine nearly always has bill exchanger built in, which will eat ¥1000 bills and spew out ¥1000 worth of coins in exchange. If you're short on change, it's best to exchange before it's time to get off.

    The electronic board almost always includes a display and recorded voice announcements of the next stop — usually only in Japanese, although some cities (like Kyoto) make a welcome exception. However, if asked most drivers will be glad to tell you when you've reached your destination.

    By taxi
    You will find taxis everywhere in Japan, not only in the city, but also in the country. Taxis are clean and completely safe, though a bit expensive: starting fees are usually in the ¥640-660 range and the meter ticks up frantically after the first 2 kilometers or so. But sometimes, they're the only way to get where you're going. Taxi meters are strictly regulated and clearly visible to the passenger. If you're not sure if you have enough money for the trip, your driver may be able to guess the approximate cost of a trip beforehand. Taxi fares are also higher at night. Tipping is not customary and would most likely be refused.

    In the city, you can hail a taxi just about anywhere, but outside train stations and other transfer points you should board at taxi stand. (The taxi stand will usually either have a long line of patient passengers, or a long line of idle taxis.) If the destination is a well-known location, such as a hotel, train station, or public facility, the name alone should be enough. Note that extremely few taxi drivers can speak English, so carrying a pamphlet or card of your hotel or destination with the address on it can be very helpful.

    An interesting feature of Japanese taxis is that the driver controls the opening and closing of the rear left passenger door. Try to avoid the habit of closing your door when you board the taxi. Taxi drivers also have a reputation for speeding and aggressive driving, but there are very few accidents involving bad drivers.

    By car
    Rental cars and driving in Japan are rare in or around the major cities, as public transport is generally excellent and gets you almost everywhere. However many rural areas can really only be explored with your own transport, so driving should certainly not be dismissed out of hand, especially on the vast, sparsely populated island of Hokkaido.

    A international driver's license (or Japanese license) will be required if you wish to rent a car or drive in Japan, and must be carried at all times. Driving is on the left as normally found in UK/Australia/Singapore/NZ/Cyprus, opposite to Europe/USA/Canada. There is no "right turn on red" (or left turn, rather) rule in Japan. Driving while drunk can result in fines of up to 500,000 yen and instant loss of licence, at above the official "drunk driving" blood-alcohol limit of 0.25mg. It's also an offence to "drive under the influence" with no set minimum that can be fined up to 300,000 yen, with a suspension of license. Using a cell phone while driving without a hands-free kit can result in fines of up to 50,000 yen.

    Tolls for the expressways (高速道路 kōsoku-dōro) are generally significantly higher than the cost of a train ride, even on the bullet train. So for one or two people it's not cost-effective for direct long distance travel between cities. Both rental costs and fuel are more expensive than those in USA, but fuel is generally cheaper than found in Europe. Rental car companies generally offer smaller cars from 5000 yen/day, and a full size sedan will cost around 10000 yen/day. Most rental cars have some kind satellite navigation ("navi") thus you can ask the rental car company to set your destination before your first trip. However unless you read Japanese you may need to ask for assistance to make full use of the navigation computer. On the highways and around major cities English signage is very good; however in more remote locales it may be spotty. Japanese driving habits are generally as good as anywhere else, and usually better than other Asian and southern European countries. Japanese roads are generally of good quality, with smooth bitumen surfaces. Gravel roads are very limited, usually forest roads, and unlikely to be on the itinerary of too many tourists. Roadworks are frequent however, and can cause annoying delays. Certain mountain passes are shut over winter.

    Navigating within cities can be confusing and parking in them costs ¥300-400/hour. Larger hotels in the cities and regional hotels normally offer car parking, but it would be wise to check car parking however before you book. The best car to use in Tokyo is a taxi.

    Japan has horizontal traffic lights, with any arrows appearing beneath the main lights. The color-blind should note that the red (stop) is on the right and the green (go) is on the left. There are usually only one or two traffic lights per intersection pointing the same way, which can make it hard to see when the signals change. However some prefectures, such as Toyama and Niigata, have vertical lights (this is supposedly due to the amount of snow they get).

    Warning hazards for repair, breakdown and construction are always well illuminated at night and tend to also appear at least once before the main obstacle on higher speed roads such as expressways. Other road hazards to be aware of are taxis, who feel they have a god-given right to stop wherever and whenever they like, long-distance truckers (especially late at night) who may often be hepped up on pep pills and tend to ride the bumper of any slower car in front, and country farmers in their ubiquitous white mini-trucks, who never seem to go above a crawl and may pop out of rural side roads unexpectedly.

    Road speed limits are marked in kilometres per hour. They are 40km/h in towns (with varying areas: some at 30, roads by schools usually at 20), 50 to 60 in the countryside (if unmarked, the limit is 60), and 100 on the expressways. There is usually a fair bit of leeway in terms of speeding - about 10km/h on normal roads, for example. If you go with the flow you should not have any problems, as the Japanese often pay speed limits no more attention than they have to.

    By thumb
    Japan is an excellent country for hitchhiking, although there is no Japanese custom for this, and some Japanese ability is almost mandatory. See Hitchhiking in Japan for a more detailed introduction and practical tips for this fine art.


    The language of Japan is Japanese. Most Japanese have studied English for at least 6 years, but conversational ability is usually poor. If lost, one practical tip is to write out a question on paper in simple words and give it to someone young. They may be able to point you in the right direction. It can also be helpful to carry a hotel business card or matchbook with you, to show a taxi driver or someone if you lose your way. Take comfort in the fact that many Japanese will go to extraordinary lengths to understand what you want and to help you, and try to pick up at least basic greetings and thank yous to put people at ease.

    Japanese is a language with several distinct dialects, although standard Japanese (hyōjungo 標準語) is understood everywhere. Areas like Kagoshima prefecture and the Tohoku region have dialects that are nearly incomprehensible to other Japanese. The slang-heavy dialect of the Kansai region is particularly famous in Japanese pop culture. On the southern islands of Okinawa, many dialects of the the closely related Ryukyuan language is spoken, mostly by the elderly, while in northern Hokkaido a rare few still speak Ainu.

    Japanese is written using a convoluted mix of three different scripts: kanji (漢字) or Chinese characters, together with "native" hiragana (ひらがな) and katakana (カタカナ) syllabaries, which were in fact derived from Chinese characters a few hundred years ago. However, hiragana and katakana no longer carry the meaning of the original Chinese characters they were derived from and are now simply phonetic characters. There are thousands of kanji in everyday use and even the Japanese spend years learning them, but the kanas have only 50 syllables each and can be learned with a reasonable amount of effort. Of the two, katakana are probably the most useful for the visitor as they are used to write words of foreign origin other than Chinese, and thus can be used to figure out words like kamera (カメラ), konpyūtā (コンピューター) or kōhī (コーヒー). Knowing Chinese will also be a great head start for tackling kanji, but not all words mean what they seem: 手紙 (tegami), "toilet paper" to the Chinese, means "letter" in Japan!


    The Japanese currency is the Japanese yen, abbreviated ¥ (or JPY in foreign exchange contexts). The symbol 円 (pronounced en) is used in the Japanese language itself. US$1 = ¥123.4 is the exchange rate (as of 18 June 2007).
  • Coins: 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 yen. There are two 500 yen coins, distinguishable by their color. (The new ones are gold, the old ones are silver).
  • Bills: 1000, 2000, 5000, and 10000 yen. 2000 yen bills are rare. New designs for all the bills except 2000 yen were introduced in November 2004, so there are now two versions in circulation. Most merchants will not object to receiving a 10000 bill even for a small purchase.

  • Japan is still fundamentally a cash society. Although most stores and hotels serving foreign customers take credit cards, some businesses such as cafes, bars, and grocery stores do not. Even businesses that do take cards often have a minimum charge as well as a surcharge, although this practice is disappearing. The Japanese usually carry around large quantities of cash - it is quite safe to do so and is almost a necessity, especially in smaller towns and more isolated areas.

    Almost any major bank in Japan will provide foreign currency exchange from US dollars (cash and traveler's checks). Rates are basically the same whichever bank you choose. Having to wait 15-30 minutes, depending on how busy the branch gets, is not unusual. Other currencies accepted are Euros, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand dollars, and British Pound Sterling. Other Asian currencies are generally not accepted. Japanese post offices also can cash traveler's checks or exchange cash for yen, at a slightly better rate than the banks. Traveler's checks also have a better rate of exchange than cash.

    Japanese ATMs, known locally as cash corners (キャッシュコーナー kyasshu kōnā), generally do not accept foreign cards and the availability of credit card advances, known as cashing (キャッシング kyasshingu), is spotty.

    The major exceptions are:
  • Citibank, which has a limited network (see here for a list) but does have ATMs at the major airports.
  • The Post Office (郵便局 YÅ«bin kyoku), which also does banking and has a branch in almost every village. Most postal ATMs provide instructions in English as well as Japanese. Accepted cards are a Visa, Mastercard, American Express or Diners Club credit card, or ATM card in the Plus or Cirrus networks, or debit cards in the Visa Electron or Maestro Networks.
  • Over 12,000 Japanese 7-Eleven stores with ATMs will start accepting foreign cards for cash withdrawls from July of 2007. Accepted cards include Visa, Mastercard, American Express, JCB and UnionPay, and ATM cards with Plus, Maestro or Cirrus logos.

  • One thing to beware: many Japanese ATMs are closed at night and during the weekends, so it's best to get your banking done during office hours!

    Vending machines in Japan are known for their pervasiveness and the (notorious) variety of products they sell. Most will take 1,000 yen bills, and some types such as train ticket machines will take up to 10,000; none accept 1 or 5 yen coins, nor 2000 yen notes. And even the most high-tech vending machines do not take credit cards, save for certain ones in train stations.

    Prepaid electronic cards are quite popular in Japan for small purchases. There are cards for train fares, convenience stores purchases, and public telephones, though they aren't interchangeable.

    There is a 5% consumption tax on all sales in Japan. As of April 2004, the tax must now be included in all displayed prices, but some stores still ALSO display tax-excluded prices, so pay attention. The word Zei-nuki (税抜) means tax-excluded, Zei-komi (税込) means tax-included. If you cannot find out any words in the price card, most of them are tax-included.

    Tips are not customary and would most likely be refused. Japanese service is legendary, and you do not need to bribe the waiters/waitresses to do their job properly. Besides, the meal is probably expensive enough already. Some restaurants will however add a 10% service charge. Most family restaurants that are open late or 24 hours will also add a 10% late-night charge.

    Japan has a reputation for being extremely expensive — and it can be. However, many things have become significantly cheaper in the last decade. Japan need not be outrageously expensive if you plan carefully. For long-distance travel, in particular, the Japan Rail Pass and Visit Japan flights (see Get in) can save you a bundle.

    As rough guidelines, you will find it very difficult to travel on less than ¥4,000 per day (but if you plan carefully, it's certainly not impossible), and can only expect a degree of comfort if you double the budget to ¥10,000. Staying in posh hotels, eating fancy meals or just traveling long-distance will easily double this yet again. Typical prices for moderate budget travel would be ¥5000 for hotel, ¥2000 for meals, and ¥2000 again for entry fees and local transport.

    Stores advertising "duty free" only save you the 5% consumption tax and require you to have your passport with you to get the benefit. A ¥10,000 minimum purchase is required, but unlike most countries the tax is deducted immediately, with no complicated reclaiming hoops needed.

    Anime and manga
    To many Westerners, and especially Americans, anime (animation) and manga (comics) are the most popular icons of modern Japan. Many visitors come to Japan in search of merchandise relating to their favorite anime and manga titles; among the most popular are Gundam, Pokemon, Dragon Ball Z, Digimon, Sailor Moon, Hello Kitty, and so on. Some even try to find Japanese-language anime DVD's, but there is a catch - Japan is in DVD Region 2 and uses NTSC video formatting, so if you live outside of Region 2 and/or use PAL format, you may have made a costly purchase with virtually nothing to show for it.

    Electronics and cameras
    Battery-powered small electronics and still cameras made for sale in Japan will work anywhere in the world, though you might have to deal with an owner's manual in Japanese. There are no great deals to be found pricewise, but the selection is unparalleled. However, if you are buying other electronics to take home, it's best to shop at stores that specialize in "overseas" configurations, many of which can be found in Tokyo's Akihabara. You can get PAL/NTSC region-free DVD players, for example. Also, keep in mind that Japanese AC runs at 100 volts, so using "native" Japanese electronics outside Japan without a step-down transformer can be dangerous. Even the US standard 110V current is too much for many devices.

    Prices are lowest and shopping is the easiest at giant discount stores like Bic Camera, Yodobashi Camera, Sofmap and Yamada Denki. They usually have English-speaking staff on duty and accept foreign credit cards. For common products the prices at any are virtually identical, so don't waste time comparison shopping. Bargaining is possible in smaller shops, and even the larger chains will usually match their competitors' prices.

    Most of the big chains have a "member's card" that gets you "points" which can be used as a discount on your next purchase, even if it's just a few minutes later. (Some require you to wait overnight.) The cards are handed out on the spot and no local address is needed.


    Japanese cuisine, renowned for its emphasis on fresh, seasonal ingredients, has taken the world by storm. The key ingredient of most meals is white rice, usually served steamed, and in fact its Japanese word gohan (ご飯) also means "meal". Soybeans are a key source of protein and take many forms, notably the miso (味噌) soup served with almost every meal, but also tōfu (豆腐) bean curd and the ubiquitous soy sauce (醤油 shōyu). Seafood features heavily in Japanese cuisine, including not only creatures of the sea but many varieties of seaweed as well, and a complete meal is always rounded out by some pickles (漬物 tsukemono).

    One of the joys of getting out of Tokyo and traveling within Japan is to discover the local specialties. Every region within the country has a number of delightful dishes, based on locally available crops and fish. In Hokkaido try the fresh sashimi and crab. In Osaka don't miss the okonomiyaki stuffed with green onions.

    Japanese food is eaten with chopsticks (箸 hashi). Curry rice and fried rice are eaten with spoons. Eating with chopsticks is a surprisingly easy skill to pick up, although mastering them takes a while. Some chopstick guidelines to be aware of:
  • Never place or leave chopsticks upright in a bowl of rice, and never pass something from your chopsticks to another person's chopsticks. These are associated with funerary rites. If you want to give a piece of food to someone, let them take it from your plate, or place it directly on their plate.
  • When you are done using chopsticks, you can rest them across the edge of your bowl or plate. Most nicer restaurants put a small wooden or ceramic chopstick rest (hashi-oki) at each place setting. You can also fold the paper wrapper that the chopsticks come in to construct your own hashi-oki.
  • Licking the ends of your chopsticks is considered low-class. Take a bite of your rice instead.
  • Using chopsticks to move plates or bowls is rude.
  • Pointing at things with your chopsticks is rude. (Pointing at people in general is rude; with chopsticks, doubly so.)
  • Spearing food with your chopsticks is generally rude and should only be used as a last resort.

  • Disposable chopsticks (wari-bashi) are provided in all restaurants as well as with bentō and other take-out foods. It is a myth that you should "whittle" your chopsticks after breaking them apart.

    Many Japanese dishes come with different sauces and garnishes. Japanese never put soy sauce on their rice, though they do dip their sushi in it before eating, and they pour it on grilled fish as well. Tonkatsu (pork cutlet) comes with a thicker sauce, tempura comes with a lighter, thinner sauce made from soy sauce and dashi (fish and seaweed soup base), while gyōza (potstickers) are usually dipped in a mixture of soy sauce, vinegar and chili oil.

    The number of restaurants in Japan is stupendous, and you will never run out of places to go. For cultural and practical reasons, Japanese almost never invite guests to their homes, so socializing nearly always involves eating out.

    Most Japanese-style restaurants have lunchtime teishoku (定食), or fixed set meals. These typically consist of a meat or fish dish, with a bowl of miso soup, pickles, and rice (often with free extra helpings). These can be as inexpensive as ¥600 yet ample enough even for large appetites. Menus however will for most establishments be in Japanese only; however many restaurants
    have models (many in exquisite detail) of their meals in their front window, and if you can't read the menu it may be better to take the waiter or waitress outside and point at what you would like.

    Restaurants will present you with the check after the meal, and you are expected to pay at the counter when leaving — do not leave payment on the table and walk out. The phrase for "check" is kanjō or kaikei. When it's getting late, a server will usually come to your table to tell you it's time for the "last order." When it's really time to go, Japanese restaurants have a universal signal - they start to play "Auld Lang Syne". (This is true across the country, except at the most expensive places.) That means "pay up and move out."

    Many cheap chain eateries have vending machines where you buy a ticket and give it to the server. At most of these restaurants, you'll have to be able to read Japanese to use them, though. At some of these restaurants, there will be plastic displays or photographs of the food with varying prices in front of them. It is often possible to match the price, along with some of the kana (characters) to the choices at the machine. If you're open-minded and flexible, you might get shoyu (soy sauce) ramen instead of miso (fermented soy bean) ramen or you might get katsu (pork cutlet) curry instead of beef curry. You'll always know how much you're spending so you'll never overpay. If your Japanese language skills are limited or non-existent, these restaurants with vending machines are really quite comfortable places because there is limited or no conversation required at these establishments. Most of the customers will be in a hurry, the hired help will usually not be interested in making conversation and will just read your order when they take your ticket and the water/tea, napkins, and eating utensils are either supplied automatically or self-service. Some other places have all you can eat meals called tabehōdai (食べ放題).

    Tipping is not customary in Japan, and wait staff may not even understand that the cash you left on the table was intended for them. 24-hour "family restaurants" such as Denny's and Jonathan usually have a 10% late-night surcharge.

    All-around eateries
    While most restaurants in Japanese specialize in a certain type of dish, each neighborhood is guaranteed to have a few shokudō (食堂), serving up simple, popular dishes and teishoku sets at affordable prices (¥500-1000). Try ones in government buildings: often open to the public as well, they are subsidised by taxes and can be very good value, if uninspiring. A closely related variant is the bentō-ya (弁当屋), which serves takeout boxes known as o-bentō (お弁当). While travelling on JR, don't forget to sample the vast array of ekiben (駅弁) or "station bento", many unique to the region - or even the station.

    A staple of the shokudō is the donburi (丼), literally "rice bowl", meaning a bowl of rice with a topping. Popular ones include:
  • oyakodon (親子丼) — lit. "parent-and-child bowl", usually chicken and egg (but sometimes salmon and roe)
  • katsudon (カツ丼) — a deep-fried pork cutlet with egg
  • gyÅ«don (牛丼) — beef and onion
  • chÅ«kadon (中華丼) — lit. "Chinese bowl", stir-fried vegetables and meat in a thick sauce

  • You will also frequently encounter Japan's most popular dish, the ubiquitous curry rice (カレーライス karÄ“ raisu) — a thick, mild, brown paste that would leave most Indians scratching their heads. Often the cheapest dish on the menu, a large portion (大盛り ōmori) is guaranteed to leave you stuffed.

    At the other extreme of the spectrum are super-exclusive ryōtei (料亭), the Michelin three-star restaurants of the Japanese food world, which serve gourmet kaiseki (会席) meals prepared from the very best seasonal ingredients. Should they condescend to let you in — and many require introductions — you will be looking at upwards of ¥30,000 per head for an experience which, quite frankly, will go right over the heads of most mere mortals visiting Japan for the first time.

    Even Japanese want something other than rice every now and then, and the obvious alternative is noodles (麺 men). Practically every town and hamlet in Japan boasts its own "famous" noodle dish, and they are often well worth trying.

    There are two major noodle types native to Japan: thin buckwheat soba (そば) and thick wheat udon (うどん). Typically all dishes below can be ordered with either soba or udon depending on your preference and a bowl will only cost a few hundred yen, especially at the standing-room-only noodle joints in and near train stations.
  • kake soba (かけそば) — plain broth and maybe a little spring onion on top
  • tsukimi soba (月見そば) — soup with a raw egg dropped in named "moon-viewing" because of the resemblance to a moon behind clouds
  • kitsune soba (きつねそば) — soup with sweetened thin sheets of deep-fried tofu
  • zaru soba (ざるそば) — chilled noodles served with a dipping sauce, shallot and wasabi, popular in summer

  • Chinese egg noodles or rāmen (ラーメン) are also very popular but more expensive (¥500+) due to the greater effort involved and the condiments, which typically include a slice of grilled pork and a variety of vegetables. The four major styles of ramen are:
  • shio rāmen (塩ラーメン) — salty pork broth
  • shoyu rāmen (醤油ラーメン) — soy broth
  • miso rāmen (味噌ラーメン) — miso (soybean paste) broth
  • tonkotsu ramen(とんこつラーメン), thick pork broth

  • Slurping your noodles is not only acceptable, but expected. The exception to this is young ladies who do not want to draw attention to their eating and will often eat their noodles in silence. According to the Japanese it both cools them down and makes them taste better. And pick up a manga comic book to protect yourself from soup spray!

    Sushi and sashimi
    Perhaps Japan's most famous culinary exports are sushi (寿司), usually raw fish over rice, and sashimi (刺身), plain raw fish. These seemingly very simple dishes are in fact quite difficult to prepare properly: the fish must be extremely fresh, and apprentices spend years just learning how to make the vinegared rice for sushi correctly, before moving on to the arcane arts of selecting the very best fish at the market and removing every last bone from the fillets.

    [[Image:Hebinome Sushi.JPG|thumb|240px|A fancy nigiri assortment.

    Top from left: salmon (shake), squid (ika), amberjack (hamachi), egg (tamago), crab (kani), ark shell (akagai)

    There is enough arcane sushi terminology to fill entire books, but the most common types are:
  • nigiri — the canonical sushi form consisting of rice with fish pressed on top
  • maki — fish and rice rolled up in nori seaweed and cut into bite-size chunks
  • temaki — fish and rice rolled up in a big cone of nori
  • gunkan — "battleship" sushi, like nigiri but with nori wrapped around the edge to contain the contents
  • chirashi — a large bowl of vinegared rice with seafood scattered on top

  • Nearly anything that swims or lurks in the sea can and has been turned into sushi, and most sushi restaurants keep a handy multilingual decoding key on hand or on the wall. A few species more or less guaranteed to feature in every restaurant are maguro (tuna), sake (salmon), ika (squid), tako (octopus), and tamago (egg). More exotic options include uni (sea urchin roe), toro (fatty tuna belly, very expensive) and shirako (fish sperm).

    If you somehow ended up in a sushi restaurant, but can't or don't want to eat raw fish, there are usually several alternatives. For instance the above mentioned tamago, various vegetables on rice, or the very tasty inari (rice in a sweet wrap of deep fried tofu). Or order the kappa maki which is nothing more than sliced cucumber, rolled up in rice and wrapped in nori.

    Even in Japan, sushi is a bit of a delicacy and the most expensive restaurants, where you order piece by piece from a chef, can run you bills into ten of thousands of yen. You can limit the damage by ordering a fixed-price moriawase (盛り合わせ) set, where the chef will choose whatever he thinks is good that day. Cheaper yet are the ubiquitous kaiten (回転, lit. "revolving") sushi shops, where you sit by a conveyor belt and grab whatever strikes your fancy, at prices that can be as low as ¥100 per plate; note that, even in these places, it's quite acceptable to order directly from the chef.

    When eating sushi, it's perfectly acceptable to use your fingers, just dip the piece in soy and pop it in your mouth. In Japan, the pieces will typically already have a dab of fiery wasabi radish lurking inside, but you can always add more according to your taste. Slices of pickled ginger (gari) refresh the palate and infinite refills of green tea are always available for free.

    Grilled and fried dishes
    The Japanese didn't eat much meat before the Meiji era, but they have picked up the habit and even exported a few new ways to eat it since then. Keep an eye on the price though, as meat (especially beef) can be fiercely expensive and luxury varieties like the famous marbled Kobe beef can cost thousands or even tens of thousands of yen per serving. Some options, usually served by specialist restaurants, include:
  • okonomiyaki (お好み焼き) — Japanese pancake-pizza, based on a wheat-cabbage batter with meat or seafood of your choice, slathered with sauce, mayo, bonito flakes, dried seaweed and pickled ginger
  • teppanyaki (鉄板焼き) — meat grilled on a hot iron plate
  • tempura (天ぷら) — light-battered shrimp, fish and vegetables deep-fried very quickly, served with a dipping broth
  • tonkatsu (豚カツ) — deep-fried breaded pork cutlets elevated into an art form
  • yakiniku (焼肉) — Japanese-style "Korean barbeque", cooked by yourself at your table
  • yakitori (焼き鳥) — grilled skewers of every chicken part imaginable, a classic accompaniment to alcohol

  • One Japanese specialty worth seeking out is eel (うなぎ unagi), reputed to give strength and vitality in the drainingly hot summer months. A properly grilled eel simply melts in the mouth when eaten — and takes over a thousand yen from your wallet in the process.

    A rather more infamous Japanese delicacy is whale (鯨 kujira), which tastes like fishy steak and is served both raw and cooked. However, most Japanese don't hold whale in much esteem; it's associated with school lunches and wartime scarcity, and it's rarely found outside speciality restaurants such as Kujiraya in Shibuya, Tokyo. Canned whale can also be found in some grocery stores at a huge price for a small can.

    Stewed dishes
    Particularly in the cold winter months various "steamboat" stews (鍋 nabe) are popular ways to warm up. Common types include:
  • chankonabe (ちゃんこ鍋) — a hotchpotch steamboat much favored by sumo wrestlers
  • oden (おでん) — fish soup simmered for days on end, often sold on the street (and convenience stores) in the winter
  • sukiyaki (すき焼き) — a hotpot of beef, tofu, noodles and more, often somewhat sweet
  • shabu-shabu (しゃぶしゃぶ) — a hotpot of clear water or very light broth; very thin slices of meat (traditionally beef, but seafood, pork, and other variations exist) are briefly swished through the hot water to instantly cook them, then dipped in flavoured sauce

  • Pseudo-Western dishes
    Throughout Japan you can find cafes and restaurants serving Western food (洋食 yōshoku), ranging from molecular-level carbon copies of famous French pastries to hardly recognizable Japanized dishes like corn-and-potato pizza and spaghetti omelettes. A few popular only-in-Japan dishes include:
  • hambaagu (ハンバーグ) — not to be confused with the McDonalds-style hambaagaa, this is a standalone hamburger patty with fixings
  • omuraisu (オムライス) — rice wrapped in an omelette with a complimentary dollop of ketchup
  • wafÅ« suteeki (和風ステーキ) — steak served Japanese-style with soy
  • korokke(コロッケ); croquettes, usually filled with potato, along with some meat and onion.
  • kare-(カレー); Japanese-style curry, it is not as spicy as Indian curry

  • Beer gardens
    During the summer months (when it is not raining) many buildings and hotels have restaurants on their
    rooftops which serve dishes like fried chicken and french fries, as well as light snacks. The specialty though is of course draft beer, and you can order large mugs of it or pay a fixed price for all you can drink.

    Fast food
    Japanese fast food restaurants offer decent quality at reasonable prices. Some chains to look out for:
  • Yoshinoya (吉野家), Matsuya (松屋), and Sukiya (すき家) are gyÅ«don (beef bowl) specialists. All have been hit hard by the recent BSE scare, and have switched much of their menus to pork.
  • Tenya (てんや), the best tempura you'll ever eat for less than ¥500
  • MOS Burger seems like just another fast food chain, but actually has a pretty interesting menu — for hamburgers with a twist, how about grilled eel between two rice buns? Notice also the list of local produce suppliers posted in each shop. Made to order, so guaranteed fresh, and unlike some fast-food places, Mosburger products generally look like their advertising photos. A bit more expensive that McDonalds, but worth the extra. MOS stands for Mountain, Ocean, Sun, by the way.
  • Freshness Burger tries to be a bit less fast-foody and more like an "all-American" joint. The food's decent, but just be prepared for the tiniest burgers you've ever seen.
  • Beckers Operated by JR, these fastfood burger restaurants are often found in and near JR stations in greater Tokyo and Yokohama. Beckers offers made to order burgers and Menchi burgers (minced black pork). Unlike most shops, their buns are fresh and baked inside the stores. Unused buns are thrown away if not used 1.5 hours after baking them. Their Pork Teriyaki burger is awesome. They also offer Poutine, which is of course a French Canadian snack consisting of french fries, gravy and cheese. The chilli topping needs to be tried. More often than not, you can pay with the JR Suica pre-paid re-chargeable multi use traincard.
  • Ooto-ya (大戸屋) is really too good to call fast food, with a menu and atmosphere that matches any "home-style" Japanese restaurant. While there are illustrated menus on signboards, ordering can be confusing: at some stores you order at the counter before taking a seat, while at others servers come to your table.
  • Soup Stock Tokyo is a trendy soup kitchen chain that serves delicious soup all-year round, with a selection of cold soups in summer. It is a bit more expensive than most other fast food chains but you may consider it a healthier alternative to burgers.
  • Lotteria Standard burger-type place.
  • First Kitchen Another Ronald clone.

  • American fast food chains are also ubiquitous, including McDonald's, Wendy's, and Kentucky Fried Chicken. McDonalds restaurants are almost as ubiquitous as vending machines.

    There are also a number of Japanese "family restaurants", serving a wide variety of dishes, including steak, pasta, Chinese style dishes, sandwiches, and other foods. Though their food is relatively uninteresting, these restaurants usually have illustrated menus, so travelers who cannot read Japanese can use the photos to choose and communicate their orders.
    Some chains across the country are:
  • Jonathan's is probably the most ubiquitous local chain. Skylark is owned by the same company and has similar fare, including a cheap and unlimited "drink bar" which makes these restaurants good places for reading or resting over extended periods. Denny's also has many stores in Japan.
  • Royal Host - tries to market itself as a bit up-scale
  • Sunday Sun - reasonable, decent food and menus
  • Volks - specializes in steaks, and offers a large salad bar.

  • Coffee shops
    Though Starbucks has planted its flag in Japan almost as well as in the United States, the Japanese kissaten (喫茶店) has a long history. If you're really looking for a jolt of caffeine, go to Starbucks or one of its Japanese predecessors such as Doutor. But if you're trying to get out of the rain, the heat or the crowds for a while, the kissaten is an oasis in an urban jungle. Most coffee shops are one-of-a-kind affairs, and reflect the tastes of their clientele. In a Ginza coffee shop, you'll find a soft "European" decor and sweet pastries for upscale shoppers taking a load off their Ferragamos. In an Otemachi coffee shop, businessmen in suits huddle over the low tables before meeting their clients. In Roppongi's all-night coffee shops, the night owls pause between clubs, or doze until the trains start running again in the morning.

    A peculiar kind of kissaten is the jazz kissa (ジャズ喫茶), or jazz coffee shop. These are even darker and more smoke-filled than normal kissaten, and frequented by extremely serious-looking jazz buffs who sit motionless and alone, soaking in the bebop played at high volumes from giant audio speakers. You go to a jazz kissa to listen; conversation is a no-no.

    Another offshoot is the danwashitsu (談話室, or lounge). The appearance is indistinguishable from a pricy kissaten, but the purpose is more specific: serious discussions over matters such as business or meeting prospective spouses. All tables are in separate booths, reservations are usually required, and the drinks are pricey. So don't wander into one if you're just looking for a cup of coffee.

    Convenience stores
    If you're travelling on the cheap, Japan's numerous convenience stores (コンビニ konbini) can be a great place to grab a bite to eat, and they're almost always open 24-7. Major chains include 7-11, Lawson, and Family Mart. You can find instant noodles, sandwiches, meat buns, and even some small prepared meals, which can be heated up in a microwave right in the store. An excellent option for food on the go is onigiri (or omusubi), which is a large ball of rice stuffed with (say) fish or pickled plum and wrapped in seaweed, and usually cost around ¥100 each.

    For those really on a budget, most supermarkets have a wide variety of ready-to-eat meals, bentos, sandwiches, snacks and the like, generally cheaper than convenience stores. Some supermarkets are even open 24 hours a day.

    Eating vegetarian
    Despite its image as light and healthy cuisine, everyday Japanese food can be quite heavy in salt and fat, with deep-fried meat or seafood being prominent. Vegetarians (much less vegans) may have difficulty finding a meal that does not include animal products to some degree, particularly as the near-ubiquitous Japanese soup stock dashi is usually prepared with bonito.

    An excellent option is the kaiten sushi shop. Westerners tend to associate sushi with fish, but there are several kinds of rolled sushi available in these shops that does not include fish or other marine creatures: kappa maki (cucumber rolls), nattō maki (sushi filled with stringy fermented soy beans, an acquired taste for many), kanpyō maki (pickled-gourd rolls), and, occasionally, yuba sushi (made with the delicate, tasty 'skin' of tofu). These types of sushi tend to be less popular than the sushi using marine animal products, so you may not see them revolving in front of your eyes on the conveyor belt. Just shout out the name of the type of sushi you want and the sushi chef will prepare it for you right away. When you are ready to leave, call the waitress over and she'll count your plates. The vegetarian sushi options are always inexpensive. Whether eating vegetarian (or otherwise), kaiten sushi shops offer good value and are lots of fun.

    For anyone living in big cities, especially Tokyo, an excellent option is organic food, known as shizenshoku (自然食). While "vegetarian food" may sound boring, or even unappetizing to Japanese ears, shizenshoku is quite in vogue as of late, although meals may cost about ¥3000. While considerably harder to find, it's worth looking out for a restaurant (often run by temples) that offers shōjin ryori (精進料理), the purely vegetarian cuisine developed by Buddhist monks. This cuisine is highly regarded, and thus commands astronomical prices.


    The Japanese drink a lot: not only green tea in the office, at meetings and with meals, but also all types of alcoholic beverages in the evening with friends and colleagues. Many social scientists have theorized that in a strictly conformist society, drinking provides a much-needed escape valve that can be used to vent off feelings and frustrations without losing face the next morning.

    If you're looking for an evening of food and drink in a relaxed traditional atmosphere, go to an izakaya (居酒屋, Japanese-style pub), easily identified by red lanterns with the character "é…’" (sake) hanging out front. Many of them have an all-you-can-drink (飲み放題 nomihōdai) deals which are about ¥1000 (US$10) for 90 minutes (on average), although you'll be limited to certain types of drinks. Very convenient. An izakaya will usually have a lively, convivial atmosphere, as it often acts as a living room of sorts for office workers, students and seniors. Food is invariably good and reasonably priced, and in all, they are an experience not to be missed.

    While Western-style bars can also be found here and there, typically charging ¥500-1000 for drinks, a more common Japanese institution is the snack (スナック sunakku). These are slightly dodgy operations where paid hostesses pour drinks, sing karaoke, massage egos (and sometimes a bit more) and charge upwards of ¥3000/hour for the service. Tourists will probably feel out of place and many do not even admit non-Japanese patrons.

    Note that izakaya, bars and snacks typically have cover charges (kabā カバー), usually around ¥500 but on rare occasions more, so ask if the place looks really swish. In izakayas this often take the form of being served some little nibble as you sit down, and no, you can't refuse it and not pay. Some bars also charge a cover charge and an additional fee for any peanuts you're served with your beer.

    Vending machines (自動販売機 jidōhanbaiki) are omnipresent in Japan and serve up drinks 24 hours a day at the price of ¥100-130 a can, although some places with captive customers, including the top of Mount Fuji, will charge more. In addition to cans of soft drinks, tea and coffee, you can find vending machines that sell beer, sake and even hard liquor. In winter, some machines will also dispense hot drinks — look for a red label with the writing あたたかい (atatakai) instead of the usual blue つめたい (tsumetai). Vending machines that sell alcoholic beverages are usually switched off at 11PM. Also, more and more of these machines, especially those near a school, require the use of a special "Sake Pass" obtainable at the city hall of the city the machine is located in. The pass is available to anyone of 20 years of age or over. Most recently, vending machines at JR stations in the Tokyo metropolitan area have started to accept payment using the JR Suica card.

    Sake is Japanese rice wine, brewed from rice in a process not completely different from beer making, and is usually clear. The Japanese word sake (酒) can in fact mean any kind of alcoholic drink, and in Japan the word nihonshu (日本酒) is used to refer to what Westerners call "sake".

    Sake is around 15% alcohol, and can be served either hot (熱燗 atsukan) or room-temperature (冷や hiya), and sometimes chilled. Each sake has its best-fit serving temperature, but defaulting to room temparature is in most cases safe. If you are inclined to have one hot or chilled in a restaurant, asking your waiter or bartender for recommendation would be a good idea. In restaurants, one serving can start around ¥500, and go up from there.

    Sake has its own measures and utensils. The little ceramic cups are called choko (ちょこ) and the small ceramic jug used to pour it is a tokkuri (徳利). Alternatively, particularly when drinking it cold, you can sip your sake from the corner of a wooden box called a masu (枡), occasionally with a dab of salt on the edge. Sake is typically measured in gō (合, 180 mL), roughly the size of a tokkuri, ten of which make up the standard 1.8L isshōbin (一升瓶) bottle.

    The fine art of sake tasting is at least as complex as wine, but the one indicator worth looking out for is nihonshudo (日本酒度), a number often printed on bottles and menus. Simply put, this "sake level" measures the sweetness of the brew, with positive values indicating drier sake and negative values being sweeter, the average being around +2.

    Other labels often flung about include ginjō (吟醸, from highly milled rice) and daiginjō (大吟醸, even more highly milled), honjōzō (本醸造, with added alcohol) and junmai (純米, pure rice), which at least for the amateur are more useful for determining the price than the taste.

    Worth a special mention is amazake (甘酒), the lumpy homebrewed version of sake, drunk hot in the winter (often given away free at shrines on New Year's night). Amazake has very little alcohol and it tastes pretty much like fermented rice glop (which is to say, not that bad at all), but at least it's cheap. And, as the name implies, sweet.

    If you're curious about sake, the Japan Sake Brewers Association has an online version of its English brochure. You can also visit the Sake Plaza in Shinbashi, Tokyo and taste a flight of different sakes for just a few hundred yen.

    Shōchū (焼酎) is the big brother of sake, a stronger tasting distilled type of alcohol. There are largely two types of shōchū; traditional shōchū are most commonly made of rice, yam, or grain, but it can be made of other materials like potatoes, too. The other is rather industrially made out of sugar through multiple consecutive distillation, often used and served as a kind of cooler mixed with juice or soda known as a chū-hai. (Note however that canned chū-hai sold on store shelves do not even use shōchū but even cheaper alcoholic material.)
    ShōchÅ« is typically around 25% alcohol (although some varieties can be much stronger) and can be served straight, on the rocks, mixed with hot or cold water at your choice. Once solely a working-class drink, and still the cheapest tipple around at less than ¥1000 for a big 1L bottle, traditional shōchÅ« has seen a resurgence in popularity in recent years and the finest shōchÅ« now fetch prices as high as the finest sakes.

    Umeshu (梅酒) is prepared by soaking Japanese ume plums (actually a type of apricot) often in shochu but also in sake, or other type of alcohol so it absorbs the flavor, and the distinctive, penetrating nose of dark plum and brown sugar is a hit with many visitors. It can be taken straight, on the rocks (rokku) or mixed with soda (soda-wari).

    There are several large brands of Japanese beer (ビール biiru), including Kirin, Asahi, Sapporo, and Suntory. A bit harder to find is an Okinawan brand, Orion which is excellent. Yebisu is also a popular beer brewed by Sapporo. Microbrewed beers are also starting to appear in Japan, with a few restaurants offering their own micros or ji-biiru (地ビール) but these are still few in number. Most varieties are lagers, with strengths averaging 5%.

    You can buy beer in cans of all sizes, but in Japanese restaurants beer is typically served in bottles (瓶 bin), or draft (生 nama meaning "fresh"). Bottles come in three sizes, of which the largest is the most common. The large bottle gives you the opportunity to engage in the custom of constantly refilling your companion's glass (and having yours topped off as well). If you order draft beer, you each receive your own mug (jōki). In many establishments, a dai-jōki ("big mug") holds a full liter of brew.

    Some Japanese bartenders have an annoying habit of filling half of your mug with head so that you only have half a glass of actual beer. Though the Japanese like their draft beer poured that way, you may find it irritating - especially when you're paying ï¿¥600 for a glass of beer as in many restaurants and bars. If you have the gumption to ask for less head, say awa o sukoshi dake kudasai ("please, just a little foam"). You will baffle your server, but you may get a full glass of beer.

    Guinness pubs have started appearing all over the country recently, which is nice for those who like Irish drinks.

    For those with a more humourous tastes in beer, try kodomo biiru (こどもビール, literally Children’s Beer), a product that looks just like the real thing but was actually invented with children in mind (there is 0% alcohol content).

    Happōshu and third beer
    Thanks to Japan's convoluted alcohol licensing laws, there are also two almost-beers on the market: happōshu (発泡酒), or low-malt beer, and the so-called third beer (第3のビール dai-san no biiru), which uses ingredients like soybean peptides or corn instead of malt. Priced as low as ¥120, both are considerably cheaper than "real" beer, but lighter and more watery in taste. Confusingly, they are packaged very similarly to the real thing with brands like Sapporo's "Draft One" and Asahi's "Hon-Nama", so pay attention to the bottom of the can when buying: by law, it may not say ビール (beer), but will instead say 発泡酒 (happoshu) or, for third beers, the unwieldy moniker
    その他の雑酒(2) (sono ta no zasshu(2), lit. "other mixed alcohol, type 2"). Try to drink moderately as both drinks can lead to nightmare hangovers.

    Western wine
    Japanese wine is actually quite nice although it costs about twice as much as comparable wine from other countries. Several varieties exist, and imported wine at various prices is available nationwide. Selection can be excellent in the larger cities, with specialized stores and large department stores offering the most extensive offerings. One of Japan's largest domestic wine areas is Yamanashi Prefecture, and one of Japan's largest producers, Suntory, has a winery and tours there. Most wine, red and white, is served chilled and you may find it hard obtaining room-temperature (常温 jō-on) wine when dining out.

    The most popular beverage by far is tea (お茶 o-cha), provided free of charge with almost every meal, hot in winter and cold in summer. There is a huge variety of tea in bottles and cans in convenience-store fridges and vending machines. Western-style black tea is called kōcha (紅茶); if you don't ask for it specifically you're likely to get Japanese brown or green tea. Chinese oolong tea is also very popular.

    The major types of Japanese tea are:
  • sencha (煎茶), the common green tea
  • matcha (抹茶), soupy powdered ceremonial green tea, bitter and expensive but worth trying once
  • hōjicha (ほうじ茶), roasted green tea
  • genmaicha (玄米茶), tea with roasted rice, tastes popcorn-y
  • mugicha (麦茶), a drink of roasted barley, served iced in summer

  • Coffee
    Coffee (コーヒー kōhī) is quite popular in Japan, though it's not part of the typical Japanese breakfast. It's usually brewed to the same strength as European coffee; weaker, watered down coffee is called American. Canned coffee (hot and cold) is a bit of a curiosity, and widely available in vending machines like other beverages for about 120 yen per can. The regular stuff is rather sweet, so there are black varieties as well. Decaffeinated coffee is very rare in Japan, even at Starbucks, but is available in some locations.

    There are many coffee shops in Japan, including Starbucks. Major local chains include Doutor (known for its low prices) and Excelsior. A few restaurants, such as Mister Donut, Jonathan's and Skylark, offer unlimited refills on coffee for those who are particularly addicted to caffeine (or want to get some late-night work done).

    Soft drinks
    There are many uniquely Japanese soft drinks and trying random drinks on vending machines is one of the little joys of Japan. A few of note include Calpis (カルピス), a kind of yogurt-based soft drink which tastes better than it sounds and the famous Pocari Sweat (a Gatorade-style isotonic drink). A more traditional Japanese soft drink is Ramune (ラムネ) which is nearly the same as Sprite or 7-Up but is noteworthy for its unusual bottle, where one pushes down a marble into an open space below the spout instead of using a bottle opener.

    Most American soft drink brands (Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Mountain Dew) are widely available. The only choices for diet soda will be Diet Coke or Diet Pepsi. Root Beer is nearly impossible to find outside of speciality import food shops or Okinawa. Ginger ale is very popular however, and a common find in vending machines. Caffeinated energy drinks are available in many local brands (usually infused with ginseng).

    In Japan, the term "juice" (ジュース jūsu) is catch-all term for any kind of fruity soft drink -- sometimes even Coca-Cola and the like -- and extremely few are 100% juice. So if it's fruit squeezings you want, ask for kajū (果汁). Drinks in Japan are required to display the percentage of fruit content on the label; this can be very helpful to ensure you get the 100% orange juice you were wanting, rather than the much more common 20% varieties.


    Bathing is a big deal in Japan, and be it a scenic onsen hot spring, a neighhorbood sento bath or just an ordinary household tub, bathing Japanese style is a pleasure. Japanese wax lyrical about the joys of hot water (湯 yu) and dub even the ordinary tub with a honorific (お風呂 o-furo), and a visit to a Japanese hot spring — marked as ♨ on maps — should be on the agenda of every visitor.

    Onsen (温泉), quite literally "hot springs", are the pinnacle of the Japanese bathing experience. Cluster of hot spring inns pop up wherever there's a suitable source of hot water, and in volcanic Japan, they're everywhere. The most memorable onsen experience is often the rotenburo (露天風呂), which is located outside with views of the surrounding natural scenery. While the baths are usually large and shared, some swankier accommodations offer, often for an additional fee, reservable baths for you and yours alone, known as family baths, racier "romance baths" or just plain old reserved baths (貸切風呂 kashikiri-furo). Onsen baths can be either in standalone buildings available for anybody (外湯 sotoyu), or private guest-only baths inside your lodgings (内湯 uchiyu).

    While most onsen are run commercially and charge fees for entry (¥500-1000 is typical), especially in remote areas there are free publicly maintained baths that offer minimal facilities but, more often than not, stunning views to make up for it. Many of these are mixed (æ··æµ´ kon'yoku), but while men still happily traipse into these naked, if holding a towel in front of their dangly bits, it's a rare woman who'll enter one without a bathing suit these days — not that anybody will object if she does! Commercial operations with konyoku baths tend to enforce bathing suits for both sexes.

    Note that many onsen prohibit the entry of visitors with tattoos. Intended to keep out yakuza gangsters (who often sport full-back tattoos), the rule is usually applied with a modicum of common sense, but heavily tattood visitors will, at the very least, receive curious looks and may be asked to leave. A good idea to avoid some stares is to cover a tattoo with a bandaid before going into an onsen, but even the bandaid might gain some stares from a few people.

    Sentō and spas
    Sentō (銭湯) are communal bath houses found in any large city. Intended for people without their own home tub, they are typically quite utilitarian and are slowly dying out as Japan continues its break-neck modernization. Some, however, have gone upmarket and turned into spas (スパ supa), which in Japan do not mean Balinese huts offering Ayurvedic massage while getting sprinkled with orchids, but public baths for stressed-out salarymen, often with a capsule hotel (see Sleep) bolted on the side. As you might expect, these come in varying degrees of legitimacy — in particular, beware any place advertising "esthe", "health", or "soap" — but most are surprisingly decent.

    Japanese are understanding of the funny ways of foreigners, but there's one rule where no exceptions are made: you have to wash yourself and rinse off all suds before entering the bath. The water in the tub will be reused by the next person, and the Japanese consider it disgusting to soak in someone else's dirt! Basically, wash up as well as you hope the guy next to you has done.

    Be it a fancy onsen or a barebones sento, the choreography of an entire visit goes roughly as follows:

    Shared bathing areas are usually sex-segregated, so look for the characters "man" (男) and "woman" (女) to pick the right entrance. Men's baths also typically have blue curtains, while women's are red. Enter the changing room, leaving slippers at the doorway. Pick an empty basket and undress, placing all your garments in the basket. If there are lockers, place your valuables in them and take the key.

    Take your teeny-weeny towel, often provided or sold for a token fee, and enter the bath room. Note that the typical Japanese bath towel is sized like a Western hand towel, only thinner, and are meant primarily for washing. It can also be used to dry yourself, but you will need to repeatedly wring out the water. If you would prefer a larger towel, ask at the front for a bath towel.

    After removing your clothes and entering the bathing area, take a little stool, sit down, and clean yourself really, really well. Shampoo your hair, soap your entire body, repeat. Rinse all suds off once clean.

    Only then can you enter the bath tub. Do so slowly, as the water can often be very hot indeed; if it's unbearable, try another tub. If you do manage to get in, note that it's considered mildly bad form to let your towel touch the water, so you may wish to fold it atop your head. When sufficiently cooked, wash yourself once again and repeat the process in reverse.

    After your bath is finished, you can nearly always find a relaxation lounge (休憩室 kyūkeishitsu), inevitably equipped with a beer vending machine nearby. Feel free to sprawl out in your yukata, sip beer, talk with friends, take a nap.

    Some features of Japan's toilets are worth mentioning. As elsewhere in Asia, you will find both Western-style porcelain thrones for sitting and floor-level units for squatting. In private homes and home-style accommodations, you will often find toilet slippers, which are to be worn inside the toilet and only inside the toilet.

    However, most visitors come away impressed by the undeniable fact that Japan is the world's leader in toilet technology. Over half of Japan's homes are equipped with high-tech devices known as washlets (ウォシュレット), which incorporate all sorts of handy features like seat warmers, hot air dryers and tiny robotic hands that arms that squirt water. The device is operated via a control panel, which may incorporate over 30 buttons (all labeled in Japanese) and, at first glance, bears more resemblance to a Space Shuttle navigation panel than your average WC.

    Don't panic — help is at hand. The first key to solving the puzzle is that the actual flush mechanism is usually not operated by the control panel: instead, there is a standard, familiar, Western-style lever, switch or knob somewhere and it is thus entirely possible to take care of your business without ever using the washlet features. The second key to exploration is that there is always a big red button labeled æ­¢ on the panel — pressing this will instantly stop everything. Older models simply have a lever nearby that controls the flow of a sprayer.

    Armed with this knowledge you can now begin to dig deeper. Typical controls include the following:
  • Oshiri (おしり), lit. "honorable buttocks", for spraying your rear — typically shown in blue with a stylized butt icon. This action can be unnerving, but travelers should not be afraid. By the second or third time being sprayed it will seem normal.
  • Bidet (ビデ), for spraying your front — typically shown in pink with a female icon
  • Kansō (乾燥), for drying off when finished — typically yellow with a wavy air icon

  • Other, smaller buttons can be used to adjust the exact pressure, angle, location and pulsation of the jet of water. Sometimes the seat of the toilet is heated, and this can be also regulated. One explanation is that since houses are not usually centrally heated, the toilet business can be made a little more convenient by heating the seat.


    In addition to the usual youth hostels and business hotels, you can find several kinds of uniquely Japanese accommodation, ranging from rarefied ryokan inns to strictly functional capsule hotels and utterly over-the-top love hotels.

    When reserving any Japanese accommodations, bear in mind that many smaller operations may hesitate to accept foreigners, fearing language difficulties or other cultural misunderstandings. This is to some extent institutionalized: large travel agency databases note which (few) hotels are prepared to handle foreigners, and they may tell you that all lodgings are booked if only these are full! Instead of calling up in English, you may find it better to get a Japanese acquaintance or local tourist office to make the booking for you. Alternatively, for cheap Internet rates, Rakuten's English search tool is an invaluable utility. Note that prices are almost always given per person not per room. Otherwise you may have a rather unpleasant shock when your party of five tries to check out....

    When checking in to any type of accommodation, the hotel is, by law, required to make a copy of your passport unless you are a resident of Japan. It is a good idea, especially if you are travelling in groups, to present the clerk a photo copy of your passport to speed up check-in. Aside from this, remember that Japan is mostly a cash only country, and credit cards are usually not accepted in smaller forms of accommodation, including, but not limited to, small business hotels. Bring enough cash to be able to pay in advance.

    One thing to beware in wintertime: traditional Japanese houses are designed to be cool in summer, which all too often means that they are freezing cold inside in winter. Bulk up on clothing and make good use of the bathing facilities to stay warm; fortunately, futon bedding is usually quite warm and getting a good night's sleep is rarely a problem.

    While accomodation in Japan is expensive, you may find that you can comfortably use a lower standard of hotel than you would in other countries. Shared baths will usually be spotless, and theft is very unusual in Japan. Just don't expect to sleep in late: check-out time is invariably 10 AM, and any extensions to this will have to be paid for.

    There are surprisingly few Western-branded hotels in Japan: instead, it's Japanese brands like JAL, Nikko, ANA and Prince that rule the roost. Full-service five-star hotels can turn pampering into an artform, but tend to be rather bland and generic in appearance, despite steep prices starting from ¥20,000 per person (not per room). However, there are several types of uniquely Japanese and far more affordable hotels:

    Capsule hotels
    Capsule hotels are the ultimate in space-efficient sleeping: for a small fee (often under ¥2000), the guest rents himself a capsule, sized about 2x1x1 meters and stacked in two rows inside a hall containing tens if not hundreds of capsules. Capsule hotels are invariably segregated by sex and only a few cater to women.

    On entry to a capsule hotel, take off your shoes, place them in a locker and put on a pair of slippers. You will often have to surrender your locker key at check-in to insure that you do not slip out without paying! On checking in you will be given a second locker for placing your belongings, as there is no space for them in the capsule and little security as most capsules have simply a curtain, not a door. Beware though if there is a curtain, since probing hands may enter it.

    Many if not most capsule hotels are attached to a spa of varying degrees of luxury and/or dubiosity, often so that entry to the spa costs (say) ¥2000 but the capsule is only an additional ¥1000. Other, cheaper capsule hotels will require feeding in 100-yen coins even to get the shower to work. This being Japan, there are always vending machines on hand to dispense toothpaste, underwear and such sundries.

    Once you retire into your capsule, you will usually find a simple control panel for operating the lights, the alarm clock and the inevitable built-in TV. Sweet dreams! But don't oversleep or you may be hit with another day's charge.

    In Tokyo's Shinjuku and Shibuya districts the capsule hotels run at least ¥3500, but have excellent free massage chairs, saunas, public baths, disposable razors and shampoo, magazines, and coffee in the morning. Despite all that, keep in mind that your capsule "door" is just a curtain that keeps light out. You will likely hear a steady stream of drunk and sleepy business men crawling into their capsules above and across from you before falling into a mild snore.

    Love hotels
    Love hotel is a bit of a euphemism; a more accurate term would be sex hotel. They can be found in and near red light districts, but most are not in those areas. Many of them are often clustered around highway interchanges or main train stations out of the city and back to the suburbs. The entrance is usually quite discreet, and the exit is separated from the entrance (to avoid running into someone one might know). Basically you can rent a room by the night (listed as "Stay" or 宿泊 shukuhaku on the rate card, usually ¥6000-10000), a couple of hours ("Rest" or 休憩 kyÅ«kei, around ¥3000), or off hours ("No Time Service") which are usually weekday afternoons.

    They are generally clean, safe, and very private. Some have exotic themes e.g, aquatics, sports, or Hello Kitty. As a traveler, rather than a a typical client, you (usually) cannot check in, drop your bags, and go out exploring. Once you leave, that is it, so they are not as convenient as proper hotels. "Stay" rates also tend to start only after 10 PM, and overstaying may incur hefty additional "Rest" charges. Many rooms have simple food and drinks in a refrigerator, and often have somewhat high charges. Before entering a love hotel, it would be wise to take some food and drinks with you. The rooms often feature amenities such as jacuzzis, wild theme decoration, costumes, karaoke machines, vibrating beds, sex-toy vending machines, and in some cases, videoconsoles. Most often, all toiletries (including condoms) are included. Sometimes the rooms have a book that acts as a log, where people record their tales and adventures for posterity. Popular love hotels may be entirely booked up in the cities on weekends.

    Why are they everywhere? Consider the housing shortage that plagued post-war Japan for years, and the way people still live in extended families. If you are 28 years old and still live at home, do you really want to bring your mate back to your folks' house? Or, if you are a married couple in a 40 square meter apartment with two grade school children, do you really want to get down to it at home? Thus, the love hotel. They can be seedy, but mainly they are just practical and fulfill a social need.

    One word of caution: There has been an increase in hidden cameras being planted in public and private spaces, including love hotels, either by other guests or even occasionally the hotel management. Videos of these supposed tosatsu (hidden camera) are popular in adult video stores, although many such videos are actually staged.

    Business hotels
    They are usually around ¥10,000 per night and have a convenient location (often near major train stations) as their major selling point, but rooms are usually unbelievably cramped. On the upside, you'll get a (tiny) ensuite bathroom and, quite often, free Internet. Some major chains of cheaper business hotels include Tokyu Inn , known for its generously sized rooms, and Toyoko Inn .

    Local, "unadvertised" business hotels, further from major stations, can be significantly cheaper (from ¥5000/double room/night) and can be found in the phonebook (which also tells prices!), but you will need a Japanese-speaking assistant to help or — better yet — book online in advance. For two or more, the price can often compete with youth hostels if you share a twin or double room. Note that full payment is often expected on check-in, and check-out times are early (usually 10 AM) and not negotiable unless you're willing to pay extra. At the very bottom end are dirt-cheap hotels in the labourers' districts of the major cities, such as Kamagasaki in Osaka, or Senju in Tokyo, where prices start from as little as 1500 yen for a tiny three-mat room that literally has only enough room to sleep. Walls and futons can be thin as well.

    Ryokan (旅館) are traditional Japanese inns, and a visit to one is the highlight of many a trip to Japan. Since some knowledge of Japanese mores and etiquette is required to visit one, many will hesitate to take non-Japanese guests (especially ones who do not speak Japanese), but some cater specially to this group. A night at a ryokan for one with two meals starts at about ¥8000 and goes up into the stratosphere. ¥50,000 a night per person is not uncommon for some of the posher ones, such as the famous Kagaya near Kanazawa. It is important to note that there are two types of ryokan: the small traditional-style one with wooden buildings, long verandahs, and gardens, and the more modern high-rise sort that are like luxury hotels with fancy public baths.

    Ryokan usually operate on a fairly strict schedule and you will be expected to arrive by 5 PM. On entry take off your shoes and put on the slippers you will wear inside the house. After checking in you will be led to your room, which is invariably simply but elegantly decorated and covered in tatami matting. Be sure to take off your slippers before stepping on tatami.

    Before dinner you will be encouraged to take a bath — see Bathe for the full scoop. You will probably wish to change into your yukata bathrobe before bathing and it's a simple enough garment: just place the left lapel atop the right when closing it. If the yukata provided are not big enough, simply ask the maid or the reception for 'tokudai' (特大), Outsize. Many ryokan also have colour-coded yukata depending on sex: pinkish tones for women and blue for men, for example. It might be an idea to make sure you don't mix them up.

    Once you have bathed dinner will be served in your room. In most ryokan dinner is very elaborately prepared and presented from carefully chosen seasonal ingredients; by all means ask if you are not sure how to eat a given item. The food in a good ryokan is a substantial part of the experience (and the bill), and is an excellent way to try some high-class Japanese cuisine.

    After you have finished you are free to head out into town; in hot spring towns it is perfectly normal to head out dressed only in yukata and geta clogs, although doing so as a foreigner may attract even more attention than usual. (Hint: wear underwear underneath.) Many ryokan have curfews, so make sure you don't end up locked outside.

    When you return you will find that futon bedding has been rolled out for you on the tatami. While slightly harder than a Western bed, most people find sleeping on a futon very pleasant. Pillows may be remarkably hard, filled with buckwheat chaff. Note that a real Japanese futon is simply a mattress, not the low, flat bed often sold under the name in the West.

    Breakfast in the morning is usually served communally in a dining hall at a fixed time, though the high-class places will again serve it in your room after the maid tidies away the bedding.

    A word of warning: some establishments with the word "ryokan" in their name are not the luxurious variety at all, but just minshuku (see below) in disguise. The price will tell you which type of lodging it is.

    Minshuku (民宿) are the budget version of ryokan: the overall experience is much the same but the food is simpler, dining is communal, bathrooms are shared and guests are expected to lay out their own futon (although an exception is often made for foreigners). Consequently minshuku are also cheaper and rates hover around ¥5000 with two meals (一泊二食 ippaku-nishoku). Cheaper yet is a stay with no meals (素泊まり sudomari), which can go as low as ¥3000. Minshuku are more often found in the countryside than in cities.

    Kokuminshukusha (国民宿舎), a mouthful that translates quite literally into "People's Lodges", are government-run guest houses. They primarily provide subsidized holidays for government employees in remote scenic spots, but are usually happy to accept paying guests. Both facilities and prices are usually more comparable to ryokan than minshuku standards; however, they are almost invariably large in size and can be rather impersonal. Popular ones need to be booked well in advance for peak seasons - sometimes almost a year in advance for New Years and the like.

    : See also: Meditation in Japan

    Shukubō (宿坊) are lodgings for pilgrims, usually (but not always) located within a Buddhist temple or Shinto shrine. Again, the experience is broadly similar to a ryokan, but the food will be vegetarian and you may be offered a chance to participate in the temple's activities. Some Zen temples offer meditation lessons and courses.  Shukubo can be reluctant to accept foreign guests, but one place where this won't be a problem is the major Buddhist center of Mt. Koya near Osaka.

    Hostels and camping
    Youth hostels
    Youth hostels (ユースホステル yÅ«su hosuteru, often just called yÅ«su or abbreviated "YH") can be comparatively expensive in Japan, especially if you opt for dinner and breakfast and are not a HI member, in which case the price for a single night may be over ¥5000. For HI members, though, a simple stay can cost as little as ¥1500 depending on location and season. As elsewhere, some are concrete cellblocks run like reform schools, while others are wonderful cottages in scenic spots. There are even a number of temples that run hostels as a sideline. Do some groundwork before choosing where to go, the Japan Youth Hostel page is a good place to start. Many have curfews and dorms are sex-segregated.

    Camping is the cheapest way to get a night's sleep in Japan. There is an extensive network of camping grounds throughout the country, although naturally most are away from the big cities. Transportation to them can also be problematic, as few buses may go there. Prices may vary from nominal fees (¥500) to large bungalows that cost more than many hotel rooms (¥13000 or more).

    Camping wild is illegal in most of Japan, although you can always try to ask for permission — or simply pitch your tent late and leave early. Many larger city parks may in fact have large numbers of blue tarp tents with homeless in them.

    Campsites in Japan are known as kyanpu-jo (キャンプ場), while sites designed for cars are known as ōto-kyanpu-jo. The latter tend to be far more expensive than the former (¥5000 or so), so should be avoided by those setting out on foot unless they also have lower-key accommodations available. Campsites are often located near onsen, which can be quite convenient.

    The National Camping Association of Japan helps maintain Campjo.com , a database of (nearly) all campsites in Japan. Unfortunately the listing is only in Japanese. the JNTO website has a fairly extensive list (in PDF format) of campgrounds in English.

    For the real budget traveller wanting to get by on the cheap in Japan is the option of nojuku (野宿). This is Japanese for "sleeping outside", and although it may seem quite strange to westerners, a lot of young Japanese do this when they travel. Thanks to a low crime rate and relatively stable climate, nojuku is a genuinely viable option if you're travelling in a group or feel confident doing it on your own. Common nojuku places include train stations, michi no eki (road service stations), or basically anywhere that has some kind of shelter and public toilets nearby.

    Those worrying about shower facilities will be delighted to know that Japan is blessed with cheap public facilities pretty much everywhere - notably onsen, or hot springs. Even if you can't find an onsen, sento (public baths), or sauna are also an option.

    Bear in mind nojuku is only really viable in the summer months, although in the northern island of Hokkaido even in summer the temperature may dip during the night. On the other hand, there's much more scope for nojuku on Okinawa (although public facilities on the smaller islands are lacking).

    Nojuku is not really recommended for first-time travellers to Japan, but for those with some experience, it can be a great way to get into the 'onsen' culture, meet other fellow nojuku travellers, and most of all travel very cheaply when coupled with hitchhiking.

    Gaijin houses
    If you're staying for a longer period, say a month and longer, you might be able to drastically reduce your living costs by staying in a "gaijin house". These establishments cater specifically towards foreigners and offer at least minimally furnished and usually shared apartments at reasonable prices, and without the hefty deposits and commissions of apartments (often up to 6-8 months rent worth) paid before moving in. Nearly all are only in the Tokyo area, however. It will almost certainly be cheaper than staying in a hotel for a month. Gaijin houses can be anything from ugly cramped apartment complexes with new tenants every week, to nice family run businesses in private houses, so try to get a look at the place before you decide to move in. Two of the biggest letting agencies for gaijin houses in Tokyo are Sakura House and Oak House.
  • A large list of Guest Houses (Gajin Houses) across Japan.

  • Apartments
    Traditionally, renting an apartment in Japan is a ridiculously complex and expensive process, involving getting a Japanese resident to act as your guarantor (literally — trash up the place and run away, and they'll get stuck with the bill!) and paying half a year's rent or more in advance. This is thus essentially impossible for anyone who isn't familiar with the culture and there to live and work for a few years at least.

    In recent years, though, weekly mansions (short-term apartments) have become popular for residents (typically businessmen on long-term assignment or young singles) and are accessible even to visitors. Most are 1 or 2 person rooms, though larger ones for 3 or 4 are sometimes available. Apartments fees are around 5000 yen for a single, around 6000-7000 yen for a two person room per day. Most of these apartment rental agencies will offer all apartments with shower, toilet and bath. They usually have air-conditioning, microwave and cooking ameneties. A great company that also accepts and replies to English E-Mail is Weekly Mansion Tokyo. Please allow some days for a reply, as only a few employees are fluent in English. WMT has more than 50 apartment buildings in Tokyo and Yokohama, Nagoya and Osaka. Sometimes a deposit is required for some of the apartments. You can usually forfeit this deposit if you have stayed with them a few times without any trouble. Without exception the apartments are kept clean and often have much more space and flexibility than a hotel and are priced in the Youth hostel range.

    Last resorts
    Even in Tokyo, the trains completely stop running around 1am, so if you're out after then and don't want to pay for a cab or even a capsule hotel, there are a few options for killing the hours until the first morning train.

    Internet cafés
    In bigger cities around the major stations you can find internet cafés. Here you not only can access internet but watch TV, play video games, read comics and enjoy the free drink bar. Price varies but usually around ¥400/hour. They often have a special night fare for the period when no trains are running (from around 12pm until 5 am for ¥1500). Sometimes they have massage chair, a mat to sleep on or even a shower.

    It isn't an especially comfortable option, but it is perfect for checking the next day's train schedule, downloading pictures from your digital camera, writing home and resting a bit.

    Karaoke bar
    This is only an emergency option in case you can't find anything else and you are freezing outside. Karaoke bars offer entertainment rooms until 5 am ("free time") for ¥1500-2500. Only works with at least 3-4 people.

    Public baths
    Some onsen or sento stay open all night. Usually there is a 'relaxing area' with tatami mats, TV, vending machines, etc. Often for a reasonable fee (on top of the bathing cost) you will be allowed to crash the night on the tatami.


    Many youth exchange programs bring foreign teenagers to Japan, and the country also has a number of very active university exchange programs. In order to obtain a student visa, you will be required to either have one million yen, or the equivalent in financial aid awards, to cover your living expenses. With a student visa, you may obtain an additional permission form from Immigration to legally work up to 20 hours per week. Contact your local Japanese embassy or home university's exchange program department for information on how to proceed.

    The cheapest way to stay in Japan for a longer period of time is to study at a local school or university with a generous Monbusho (Ministry of Education) grant to pay for it all. A number of Japanese universities offer courses taught in English; some foreign universities also operate independent programs in Japan, the largest being Temple University's multi-faculty campus in Tokyo.


    To work in Japan, a foreigner must receive a job offer from a guarantor in Japan, and then apply for a working visa at an embassy or consulate outside the country. Working visas are valid for a period of 1 to 3 years, and may be used to secure employment at any employer within the scope of activities designated on the visa (including employers other than the guarantor). The Working Holiday programme is open to young citizens (between 18 and 30) from Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Korea, France, Germany, Ireland and the UK: those eligible may apply for working holiday visas without having a job offer. Currently there are 27 types of status of residence visas and officially one must not engage in activities other than those specified by the status of residence visa that has been issued. There are seven different periods of stay, i.e., 15 days, 90 days, three months, six months, a year, two years and three years. Expect strict penalties if you overstay on any visa.
    Spouses of Japanese nationals can obtain spousal visas, which carry no restrictions on employment.

    The most common form of employment among foreigners is teaching English, especially in afterhours English conversation schools known as eikaiwa (英会話). Pay is fairly good for young adults, but rather poor compared to a qualified educator already at work in most Western countries. Working conditions can also be quite strict compared to western standards, and some companies have very bad reputations. An undergraduate degree or ESL creditation is essential for most desirable positions. For the larger chain English schools most teachers would have been interviewed in their home countries before coming to work in Japan. Learning English is no longer seen as fashionable as it once was and the boom years are long since over. Recently there has been a big shift towards children`s education as opposed to adult conversation classes.

    The JET Program (Japan Exchange and Teaching) offers young university graduates a chance to teach in Japan. The program is run by the Japanese government but your employer would typically be a local Board of Education who assigns you to one or more public schools. No Japanese is required and your airfare is provided. Pay is slightly better than the language schools and, unlike at such a school, if you have a serious problem with your employer you can appeal to the JET program people for help. The JET program also has a small number of positions for international relations or sports co-ordinators, although these require some Japanese ability.

    Foreigners with postgraduate education may be able to find jobs teaching English (or even other subjects) at Japanese universities, which offers better pay and working conditions than the eikaiwa industry.

    Quite a few young women choose to work in the hostess industry, where they entertain Japanese men over drinks in tiny bars known as sunakku (スナック) and are paid for their time. While pay can be good, visas for this line of work are difficult if not impossible to obtain and most work illegally. The nature of the work also carries its own risks, notably poor career prospects, alcoholism, smoking, potential problems from clients such as groping and lewd questions, and even harassment or worse, exemplified by the abduction and murder of hostess Lucille Blackman in 2000.

    The Tokyo region generally offers the widest array of jobs for foreigners, including positions for lawyers, accountants, engineers and other professionals.
  • Website for bilingual jobs in Japan
  • Japan's English Teaching Job Site
  • Comprehensive guide to English-language job sites relating to Japan

  • Stay healthy

    Japan is a country obsessed with cleanliness and health hazards are few and far between. Tap water is potable everywhere and food hygiene standards are very high. There are no communicable diseases of significance, as despite the name, Japanese encephalitis has been all but eradicated.

    With this said, it is also not uncommon to use restrooms which have no towel, hand dryer or soap facilities. Since the Japanese tend to carry a hand towel with them everywhere, these aren't as important. It's not clear why restrooms wouldn't be equipped with soap dispensers, but don't let it surprise you. Stay clean by carrying a small bottle of hand cleaner or disposable wipes.

    Though it's common sense for people who have lived in urban areas, many newcomers to Tokyo or Osaka are unfamiliar with life in an extremely congested metropolis, where almost everything they touch has been touched by hundreds of other people that same day. When newcomers to large Japanese cities don't take basic precautions, they may be more suceptible to ordinary illnesses like the common cold. As in any urban area, when in a large Japanese city like Tokyo or Osaka, wash your hands with soap and water as often as possible, especially after travelling on public transportation and before meals.

    Be sure to bring a small umbrella for the frequent rainy days. Don't rely too much on the weather forecasts, especially from a day or two ago. Then again, if caught without, you can always nip into the nearest convenience store and pick one up for ¥300.

    Japan has its share of dirty areas. Because of the sheer magnitude of traffic, the streets and curbs are just as dirty as anywhere. The obsession of cleanliness and removing shoes before entering someone's home makes sense because of the conditions of the outer world.

    If you do become ill with a cold or other sickness, purchase a mouth covering, a cloth surgical mask. You will find that people frequently wear these out on trains and on the job. This filters your sneezing and coughing so you do not transmit to others.

    Stay safe

    Japan in general is one of the safest places to visit in the world.

    Crime and scams
    Street crime is extremely rare, even late at night. Of course, little crime does not mean no crime, and is not an excuse to ditch your common sense. Women travelling alone should take care as they would in their home countries and should never hitchhike alone. Pickpocketing does sometimes happen - if you take your usual precautions in crowded places such as trains and at Narita Airport you should be fine. Women on crowded rush-hour trains should be aware of existence of chikan (ç—´æ¼¢), or molesters. A lot of heavy drinking goes on in the evenings and occasionally drunks may be a nuisance, although alcohol-related violence is extremely rare.

    Note that drug laws in Japan are stricter than those in many western countries. Possession of even personal-use quantities can land you a prison sentence of several years, and Japanese law does not distinguish between marijuana and hard drugs.

    Red-light districts in large cities can be seedy but are rarely dangerous for visitors, however some smaller backstreet bars have been known to lay down exorbitant cover charges or drink prices. In some extreme cases, foreigners have reported being drugged at such establishments, then charged for as much as JPY 700,000, or close to $7000, for drinks that they do not remember ordering (notably in the Roppongi and Kabuki-cho districts of Tokyo). If you choose to visit an establishment in one of these locales, be sure to note the price and address before entering.

    Police boxes (交番 kōban) can be found on every other street corner. The police are generally helpful (but often speak little English), so ask if you get lost or have any trouble. They usually have detailed map from the area around telling not only the difficult-to-understand numbering system but names of office or public buildings or other places which can help to find your way.
    Also, if you carry travel insurance, report any thefts or lost items at the koban. They have forms in English and Japanese, often referred to as the "Blue Form". For lost items, even cash, filling out this form is not wasted effort, as Japanese people will very often take lost items, even a wallet full of cash, to the koban. If you happen to find such an item, don't hesitate to take it to the koban. If the item is not claimed within six months, it is yours. If it is claimed, you may be due a reward of 20%.

    Japan has two emergency numbers. To call the police in an emergency, dial 110 (百十番 hyakutoban). To call for an ambulance or fire truck, dial 119 (a reversal of the U.S. 911). In Tokyo, the police have an English help line (03-3501-0110), available Monday through Friday except on holidays from 8:30 AM - 5:15 PM.

    Japan is prone to earthquakes. The last major quake in Kobe (1995) killed over 5000 and the next big one in Tokyo is statistically some 20 years overdue. Every few days, somewhere in Japan is rattled by a quake large enough to be felt. Fortunately most of them are completely harmless, but it's worth being aware of a few safety procedures:
  • Don't put heavy objects in high places, especially above your bed.
  • If you're indoors and you feel a shake, stay indoors — running outside during a quake is the most likely way you'll be injured. Extinguish gas burners and candles and beware of falling objects and toppling furniture. Shelter under furniture or a doorway if necessary.
  • If you're outdoors, stay away from brick walls, glass panels and vending machines, and beware of falling objects, telegraph cables etc. Falling roof tiles from older and traditional buildings are particularly dangerous, as they can drop long after the quake has ended.
  • If you're by the sea and experience even a moderate quake, keep an eye out for tsunami warnings (also in English) on NHK TV (channel 1) and Radio 2 (693 kHz). Most tremors and small quakes will only merit a scrolling announcement in Japanese at the top of the screen, as they are not considered particularly newsworthy. If you're near the sea and experience a major earthquake, evacuate to high ground immediately - do not wait for a warning.
  • Know exactly where your passport, travel tickets, documents, credit cards and money are and take them with you if you leave the building as you may not be able to re-enter.

  • Every neighborhood has an evacuation area, most often the local playground. Many schools are set up as temporary shelters. Both of these will be labeled in English. If you are traveling with others, plan to meet there and be aware that portable telephones will likely not work.

    Volcanoes, storms and typhoons are primarily a potential issue if mountain climbing or sailing, so check the latest information before heading out. Stick to designated footpaths in volcanic areas as volcanic gas may be an issue.

    There are poisonous snakes called habu in Okinawa although not in unusual numbers. You are unlikely to be bitten by one, but if you are, seek medical help immediately as antivenoms are available. If you are hiking in Hokkaido and Honshu, be aware
    of possible bear activity, especially in Autumn. Attacks are rare, but in areas such as the Shiretoko Peninsula, some guides recommend you to attach bells to your backpack to scare them away.


    Most if not all Japanese are very understanding of a foreigner (gaijin or gaikokujin) not conforming instantly to their culture; indeed, the Japanese like to boast (with debatable credibility) that their language and culture are among the most difficult to understand in the world, so they are generally quite happy to assist you if you appear to be struggling. However, there are few simple things to be aware of to show respect in Japan, many of which boil down to social norms of strict cleanliness and avoiding intruding on others (迷惑 meiwaku).

    Things to do:
  • Learn a little of the language, and try to use it. They will be complimentary if you try, and there is no reason to be embarrassed. They realize that Japanese may be difficult for you and won't make fun of your mistakes.
  • Bowing. Men bow with their hands to their sides. Women bow with their hands together in front. Women's hands look like they are settled in their lap when bowing, not in a prayer position. The exact degree of the bow depends on your position in society relative to the receiver of the bow and on the occasion, the largely unwritten rules are complex but foreigners are not expected to understand them and a "token bow" is fine. Many Japanese will, in fact, gladly offer a handshake instead!
  • Gift-giving is very common in Japan. You, as a guest, may find yourself inundated with gifts and dinners. Please be aware, though, that among Japanese, such generosity is implicitly expected to be returned in the future. Foreign guests are, of course, outside of this sometimes burdensome system of give-and-take (kashi-kari) but it would be a nice gesture to offer a gift or souvenir (omiyage), including one unique to or representative of your country. A gift that is "consumable" is advisable due to the smaller size of Japanese homes. Items such as soap, candies, liquor, stationery will be well-received, as the recipient will not be expected to have it on hand on subsequent visits. "Re-gifting" is a common and accepted practice, even for items such as fruit.
  • Expressing Gratitude is slightly different from obligatory gift-giving. Even if you brought a gift for your Japanese host, once you return, it is a sign of good ettiquette to send a hand-written thank you card or the like - it will be much appreciated. Japanese guests always exchange photos they have taken with their hosts, so you should expect to receive some snapshots and should prepare to send yours (of you and your hosts together) back to them. Depending on their age and the nature of your relationship (business versus personal) an online exchange may suffice.
  • The elderly are given special respect in Japanese society, and they are used to the privileges that come with it. Visitors waiting to board a train may be surprised to get shoved aside by a fearless obaa-san who has her eye on a seat. Note that certain seats on many trains ("silver seats") are set aside for the disabled and the elderly.

  • Things to avoid:
  • If you are staying in a Japanese house, use the slippers as directed, use the bathroom and toilet as directed, and keep your room clean. If you are a guest in the tatami room, don't throw around all your undergarments, or bags of souvenirs (omiyage). Keep everything in order, and don't be surprised if you are given a vacuum a couple times to clean the tatami. Never step on tatami with shoes or slippers on. Only bare feet or socks are acceptable.
  • Shoes (and feet in general) are considered very dirty by the Japanese. Avoid pointing them at anybody (eg. when sitting on the train) and try to restrain children from standing up on seats. Brushing your feet against somebody's clothing, even by accident, is very rude.
  • Tattoos, as mentioned above, are frequently associated with yakuza gangsters and may make some Japanese people uncomfortable. You may wish to cover any visible tattoos with a bandage if you're going to a formal gathering.
  • The Japanese consider hearty hugs or back slaps rude, especially if they're coming from someone they just met.
  • Avoid shouting or talking loudly in public. Talking on a mobile phone on a train is considered rude. (Sending text messages, however, is considered de rigeur.)
  • Many Japanese still revere their Imperial Family, so do not show disrespect to the Emperor, Empress or any other members. The Japanese role in World War II also remains a sensitive subject and is best avoided, especially with the older generation.

  • Contact

    By phone
    Emergency call
    Emergency call can be made from any phone at free of charge:call 110 for police or call 119 for fire and ambulance.

    Pay telephones
    Public pay telephones (公衆電話 kōshÅ« denwa) are easily found, particularly near train stations, although with the popularity of mobile phones, public pay phones are not as quite as numerous as they once were. Gray and green pay phones accept ¥10 and ¥100 coins, and pre-paid cards. Some of the gray phones, as indicated on the LCD display, can make international calls. Another type of phone, IC pay phones, use an different IC-type card, but all can make international calls. Both types of pre-paid cards may be purchased at convenience stores, train station kiosk stores and sometimes in vending machines next to the phone. International phone charges from pay phones can be unusually high; third-party phone cards are a reasonable alternative.

    Mobile phones
    Japanese mobile phone (携帯電話 keitai denwa or just keitai) standards are largely incompatible with those in the rest of the world, so it is unlikely your mobile phone will work in Japan. However, if you have a W-CDMA (UMTS) 3G phone and a carrier that roams with SoftBank or NTT DoCoMo, your phone should work on their W-CDMA network, and if you have a CDMA2000 phone (unlikely unless you live in Korea or China), you may be able to roam onto au's network. Also, some of Softbank's newer 3G models (available for rent) accept GSM SIM cards and thus you can use your usual phone number while in Japan.

    For a short visit, your best option for mobile access is to rent a phone. A number of companies provide this service:

    For a longer trip, you can also purchase a phone on monthly contract with a major credit card, which may work out to be cheaper than a rental phone. The major mobile carriers in Japan are NTT DoCoMo, KDDI's au and Softbank. Expect to pay around around ¥5000 per month, assuming light calling; a cancellation fee may apply when the contract is terminated. Prepaid phones are also available, but you have to be a Japanese citizen or have an alien registration card to get one.

    By mail
    You can send postcards to anywhere in the world for 70 yen. Public mail deposit boxes are found throughout Japan. They have two slots, one for regular domestic mail, and the other for overseas and express mail.

    By net
    Internet cafes (インターネットカフェ) can be found in or around many train stations. Here, you can upload your pictures from a digital camera, and if you forgot your cable, some cafes will lend you a memory card reader for free. Manga coffee shops (漫画喫茶 manga-kissa) usually have internet PCs as well. When you get tired of browsing the web, you can browse comic books, watch TV or a variety of movies-on-demand, or play video games. The cost is typically around ¥400/hour, with free (non-alcoholic) drinks, and possibly more. Often they have special night fares - around ¥1500 for the 4-5 hour period when no trains are running. Internet cafes can be a safe and inexpensive place to spend the night if you miss the last train.

    A number of Business Hotels have internet access available if you have your own computer, sometimes for free. In most cases, access is usually provided by a VDSL modem connected to the hotel telephone system. Please beware that some of the hotels that offer free internet access do not include the rental for the modem in the "free" part of the service, so check before you use. Setting up your network interface for DHCP is usually all that is required to gain access to the internet in such situations. Many also tend to have rental or free PC's available for hotel guests.

    Some larger train stations and airports also have rental PCs to netsurf and send e-mail, usually about ¥100 (coin) for 10 minutes.

    When using public access PC's, be careful not to accidentally hit the left side Alt-Shift keys together, or you'll be typing in Japanese characters. On the other hand, if the last person left the computer this way, you can use this key combination to switch back to the Roman alphabet. There may also be a language-switch key at the top left of the keyboard - above the Tab key - and to the right of the space bar. If you hit one by accident, just hit it again to switch back. No harm done. For email, note that the @ key is usually on the right side of the keyboard, next to the 'P'.

    It is also possible to find Wi-Fi "hot spots" around many large cities in Japan, especially near tech-related businesses and large corporate buildings with unsecured wireless networks (the Apple store in Ginza, Tokyo has a fast, open 802.11g connection).

    (日本 Nihon or Nippon, officially 日本国 Nihon-koku or Nippon-koku) is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of China, Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea in the south. The characters that make up Japan's name mean "sun-origin", which is why Japan is sometimes identified as the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan's capital and largest city is Tokyo.

    Japan comprises over three thousand islands, the largest of which are HonshÅ«, Hokkaidō, KyÅ«shÅ« and Shikoku, together accounting for 97% of land area. Most of the islands are mountainous, many volcanic; for example, Japan’s highest peak, Mount Fuji, is a volcano. Japan has the world's tenth largest population, with about 128 million people. The Greater Tokyo Area, which includes Tokyo and several surrounding prefectures, is the largest metropolitan area in the world, with over 30 million residents.

    Archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the Upper Paleolithic period. The first written mention of Japan begins with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. Influence from the outside world followed by long periods of isolation has characterized Japan's history. Thus, its culture today is a mixture of outside influences and internal developments. Since adopting its constitution in 1947, Japan has maintained a unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament, the Diet.

    A great power, Japan is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and is a member of the United Nations, G8 and APEC.


    The first signs of civilization on the Japanese archipelago appeared around 10,000 BC with a culture, characterized by a Mesolithic to Neolithic semi-sedentary hunter-gatherer lifestyle of pit dwelling and a rudimentary form of agriculture. Decorated clay vessels from this period, often with plaited patterns, are some of the oldest surviving examples of pottery in the world.

    The Yayoi period, starting around the third century BC, introduced new practices, such as wet-rice farming, iron and bronze-making and a new style of pottery, brought by migrants from China or Korea. With the development of Yayoi culture, a predominantly agricultural society emerged in Japan.

    The Japanese first appear in written history in China’s Book of Han. According to the Chinese Records of the Three Kingdoms, the most powerful kingdom on the archipelago during the third century was called Yamataikoku.

    Japan was first introduced to Buddhism from Korea, but the subsequent development of Japanese Buddhism and Buddhist sculptures were primarily influenced by China. Despite early resistance, Buddhism was promoted by the ruling class and eventually gained growing acceptance since the Asuka period.

    The Nara period of the eighth century marked the first emergence of a strong central Japanese state, centered around an imperial court in the city of Heijō-kyō, or modern day Nara. In addition to the continuing adoption of Chinese administrative practices, the Nara period is characterized by the appearance of a nascent written literature with the completion of the massive chronicles Kojiki (712) and Nihonshoki (720).

    In 784, Emperor Kammu moved the capital to Nagaokakyō for a brief ten-year period, before relocating it to Heian-kyō (modern day Kyoto) in 794, where it remained for more than a millennium. This marked the beginning of the Heian period, during which time a distinctly indigenous Japanese culture emerged, noted for its art, poetry and literature. Lady Murasaki's The Tale of Genji and the lyrics of modern Japan's national anthem, Kimi ga Yo were written during this time.

    Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. In 1185, following the defeat of the rival Taira clan, Minamoto no Yoritomo was appointed Shogun and established a base of power in Kamakura. After Yoritomo's death, the Hōjō clan came to rule as regents for the shoguns. Zen Buddhism was introduced from China in the Kamakura period (1185–1333) and became popular among the samurai class. The Kamakura shogunate managed to repel Mongol invasions in 1274 and 1281, aided by a storm that the Japanese interpreted as a kamikaze, or Divine Wind. The Kamakura shogunate was eventually overthrown by Emperor Go-Daigo, who was soon himself defeated by Ashikaga Takauji in 1336. The succeeding Ashikaga shogunate failed to control the feudal warlords (daimyo), and a civil war erupted (the Ōnin War).

    During the sixteenth century, traders and missionaries from Portugal reached Japan for the first time, initiating the Nanban ("southern barbarian") period of active commercial and cultural exchange between Japan and the West.

    Oda Nobunaga conquered numerous other daimyo by using European technology and firearms and had almost unified the nation when he was assassinated in 1582. Toyotomi Hideyoshi succeeded Nobunaga and united the nation in 1590. Hideyoshi invaded Korea twice, but following several defeats by Korean and Ming China forces and Hideyoshi's death, Japanese troops were withdrawn in 1598.

    After Hideyoshi's death, Tokugawa Ieyasu utilized his position as regent for Hideyoshi's son Toyotomi Hideyori to gain political and military support. When open war broke out, he defeated rival clans in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600. Ieyasu was appointed shōgun in 1603 and established the Tokugawa shogunate at Edo (modern Tokyo). The Tokugawa shogunate enacted a variety of measures to control the daimyo, among them the sankin kōtai policy. In 1639, the shogunate began the isolationist sakoku ("closed country") policy that spanned the two and a half centuries of tenuous political unity known as the Edo period. The study of Western sciences, known as rangaku, continued during this period through contacts with the Dutch enclave at Dejima in Nagasaki. The Edo period also gave rise to kokugaku, or literally "national studies", the study of Japan by the Japanese themselves.

    On March 31, 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. The Boshin War of 1867–1868 led to the resignation of the shogunate, and the Meiji Restoration established a government centered around the emperor. Adopting Western political, judicial and military institutions, a parliamentary system modeled after the British parliament was introduced, with Itō Hirobumi as the first Prime Minister in 1882. Meiji era reforms transformed the Empire of Japan into an industrialized world power that embarked on a number of military conflicts to increase access to natural resources. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Korea, Taiwan and the southern half of Sakhalin.

    The early twentieth century saw a brief period of "Taisho democracy" overshadowed by the rise of Japanese expansionism and militarization. World War I enabled Japan, which joined the side of the victorious Allies, to expand its influence and territorial holdings. Japan continued its expansionist policy by occupying Manchuria in 1931. As a result of international condemnation for this occupation, Japan resigned from the League of Nations two years later. In 1936, Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany, joining the Axis Powers in 1941.

    In 1937, Japan invaded other parts of China, precipitating the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), after which the United States placed an oil embargo on Japan.
    On December 7, 1941, Japan attacked the United States naval base in Pearl Harbor and declared war on the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. This act brought the United States into World War II. After the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, along with the Soviet Union joining the war against it, Japan agreed to an unconditional surrender on August 15 (V-J Day). The war cost Japan millions of lives and left much of the country's industry and infrastructure destroyed. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East, was convened by the Allies (on May 3, 1946) to prosecute Japanese leaders for war crimes such as the Nanking Massacre.

    In 1947, Japan adopted a new pacifist constitution emphasizing liberal democratic practices. Official American occupation lasted until 1952 and Japan was granted membership in the United Nations in 1956. Under a subsequent program of aggressive industrial development aided by the US, Japan achieved spectacular growth to become the second largest economy in the world, with an annual growth rate averaging 10% for four decades. This ended in the mid-1990s when Japan suffered a major recession. Positive growth in the early twenty-first century has signaled a gradual recovery.

    Government and politics

    Japan is a constitutional monarchy where the power of the Emperor is very limited. As a ceremonial figurehead, he is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people". Power is held chiefly by the Prime Minister of Japan and other elected members of the Diet, while sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people. The emperor effectively acts as the head of state on diplomatic occasions. Akihito is the current Emperor of Japan.

    Japan's legislative organ is the National Diet, a bicameral parliament. The Diet consists of a House of Representatives, containing 480 seats, elected by popular vote every four years or when dissolved and a House of Councillors of 242 seats, whose popularly-elected members serve six-year terms. There is universal suffrage for adults over 20 years of age, The largest opposition party is the social liberal Democratic Party of Japan.

    The Prime Minister of Japan is the head of government. The position is appointed by the Emperor of Japan after being designated by the Diet from among its members and must enjoy the confidence of the House of Representatives to remain in office. The Prime Minister is the head of the Cabinet (the literal translation of his Japanese title is "Prime Minister of the Cabinet") and appoints and dismisses the Ministers of State, a majority of whom must be Diet members. Shinzo Abe currently serves as the Prime Minister of Japan.

    Historically influenced by Chinese law, the Japanese legal system developed independently during the Edo period through texts such as Kujikata Osadamegaki. However, since the late nineteenth century, the judicial system has been largely based on the civil law of Europe, notably France and Germany. For example, in 1896, the Japanese government established a civil code based on the German model. With post-World War II modifications, the code remains in effect in present-day Japan. Statutory law originates in Japan's legislature, the National Diet of Japan, with the rubber-stamp approval of the Emperor. The current constitution requires that the Emperor promulgates legislation passed by the Diet, without specifically giving him the power to oppose the passing of the legislation. The main body of Japanese statutory law is a collection called the Six Codes. A member state of the United Nations since 1956, Japan has served as a non-permanent Security Council member for a total of 18 years, most recently in 2005–2006. It is also one of the G4 nations seeking permanent membership in the Security Council. As a member of the G8, the APEC, the "ASEAN Plus Three" and a participant in the East Asia Summit, Japan actively participates in international affairs. It is also the world's second-largest donor of official development assistance, donating 0.19% of its GNP in 2004. Japan contributed non-combatant troops to the Iraq War but subsequently withdrew its forces from Iraq.

    Japan is engaged in several territorial disputes with its neighbors: with Russia over the South Kuril Islands, with South Korea over the Liancourt Rocks, with China and Taiwan over the Senkaku Islands and with China over the status of Okinotorishima. Japan also faces an ongoing dispute with North Korea over its abduction of Japanese citizens and its nuclear weapons and missile program.

    Japan's military is restricted by Article 9 of the Constitution of Japan, which renounces Japan's right to declare war or use military force as a means of settling international disputes, although the current government is seeking to amend the Constitution via a referendum. Japan's military is governed by the Ministry of Defense, and primarily consists of the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) and the Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF). The forces have been recently used in peacekeeping operations and the deployment of Japanese troops to Iraq marked the first overseas use of its military since World War II.

    Japan has dozens of major cities, which play an important role in Japan's culture, heritage and economy. Those in the list below of the ten most populous are all prefectural capitals and Government Ordinance Cities, except where indicated:
    Geography and climate

    Japan is a country of over three thousand islands extending along the Pacific coast of Asia. The main islands, running from north to south, are Hokkaidō, Honshū (the main island), Shikoku and Kyūshū. The Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, are a chain of islands south of Kyushū. Together they are often known as the Japanese Archipelago.

    About 70% to 80% of the country is forested, mountainous, and unsuitable for agricultural, industrial, or residential use. This is due to the generally steep elevations, climate and risk of landslides caused by earthquakes, soft ground and heavy rain. This has resulted in an extremely high population density in the habitable zones that are mainly located in coastal areas. Japan is the thirtieth most densely populated country in the world.

    Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire, at the juncture of three tectonic plates, gives Japan frequent low-intensity tremors and occasional volcanic activity. Destructive earthquakes, often resulting in tsunamis, occur several times each century. The most recent major quakes are the 2004 Chūetsu Earthquake and the Great Hanshin Earthquake of 1995. Hot springs are numerous and have been developed as resorts.

    The climate of Japan is predominantly temperate, but varies greatly from north to south. Japan's geographical features divide it into six principal climatic zones:
  • Hokkaidō: The northernmost zone has a temperate climate with long, cold winters and cool summers. Precipitation is not heavy, but the islands usually develop deep snow banks in the winter.
  • Sea of Japan: On HonshÅ«'s west coast, the northwest wind in the wintertime brings heavy snowfall. In the summer, the region is cooler than the Pacific area, though it sometimes experiences extremely hot temperatures, due to the Föhn wind phenomenon.
  • Central Highland: A typical inland climate, with large temperature differences between summer and winter, and between day and night. Precipitation is light.
  • Seto Inland Sea: The mountains of the ChÅ«goku and Shikoku regions shelter the region from the seasonal winds, bringing mild weather throughout the year.
  • Pacific Ocean: The east coast experiences cold winters with little snowfall and hot, humid summers due to the southeast seasonal wind.
  • South-west Islands: The Ryukyu Islands have a subtropical climate, with warm winters and hot summers. Precipitation is very heavy, especially during the rainy season. Typhoons are common.

  • The main rainy season begins in early May in Okinawa, and the stationary rain front responsible for this gradually works its way north until it dissipates in northern Japan before reaching Hokkaidō in late July. In most of HonshÅ«, the rainy season begins before the middle of June and lasts about six weeks. In late summer and early autumn, typhoons often bring heavy rain.


    Close government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation have helped Japan become the second largest economy in the world, after the United States, at around US$4.5 trillion in terms of nominal GDP

    Banking, insurance, real estate, retailing, transportation and telecommunications are all major industries. Japan has a large industrial capacity and is home to some of the largest and most technologically advanced producers of motor vehicles, electronic equipment, machine tools, steel and nonferrous metals, ships, chemicals, textiles and processed foods. It is home to leading multinational corporations and commercial brands in technology and machinery. Recently, Japanese companies have begun to abandon some of these norms in an attempt to increase profitability.
    Japan is home to the world's largest bank, the Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group, which has roughly US$1.7 trillion in assets; It is also home to some of the largest financial services companies, business groups and banks. For instance several large keiretsus (business groups) and multinational companies such as Sony, Sumitomo, Mitsubishi and Toyota own billion- and trillion-dollar operating banks, investment groups and/or financial services such as Sumitomo Bank, Fuji Bank, Mitsubishi Bank, Toyota Financial Services and Sony Financial Holdings.

    From the 1960s to the 1980s, overall real economic growth has been called a "miracle": a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, largely due to the after-effects of over-investment during the late 1980s and domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets. Government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and were further hampered in 2000 to 2001 by the deceleration of the global economy. However, the economy showed strong signs of recovery after 2005. GDP growth for that year was 2.8%, with an annualized fourth quarter expansion of 5.5%, surpassing the growth rates of the US and European Union during the same period.

    Because only about 15% of Japan's land is suitable for cultivation, a system of terrace farming is used to build in small areas. This results in one of the world's highest levels of crop yields per unit area. However, Japan's small agricultural sector is also highly subsidized and protected. Japan must import about 50% of its requirements of grain and fodder crops other than rice, and it relies on imports for most of its supply of meat. In fishing, Japan is ranked second in the world behind China in tonnage of fish caught. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch.

    Transportation in Japan is highly developed. As of 2004, there are 1,177,278 km (731,683 miles) of paved roadways, 173 airports, and 23,577 km (14,653 miles) of railways.

    Science and technology

    Japan is a leading nation in the fields of scientific research, technology, machinery and medical research. Nearly 700,000 researchers share a US$130 billion research and development budget, the third largest in the world.

    Some of Japan's more important technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, machinery, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics, possessing more than half (402,200 of 742,500) of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing. It also produced QRIO, ASIMO and Aibo. Japan is also home to six of the world's fifteen largest automobile manufacturers and seven of the world's twenty largest semiconductor sales leaders.

    Japan has significant plans in space exploration, including building a moonbase by 2030. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducts space and planetary research, aviation research, and development of rockets and satellites. It also built the Japanese Experiment Module, which is slated to be launched and added to the International Space Station during Space Shuttle assembly flights in 2007 and 2008.


    Japan's population is estimated at around 127.4 million. For the most part, Japanese society is linguistically and culturally homogeneous with only small populations of foreign workers, Zainichi Koreans, Japanese Chinese, Japanese Brazilians and others. Japan also has indigenous minority groups such as the Ainu and Ryūkyūans, as well as social minority groups like the burakumin.

    Japan has one of the highest life expectancy rates in the world, at 81.25 years of age as of 2006. However, the Japanese population is rapidly aging, the effect of a post-war baby boom followed by a decrease in births in the latter part of the twentieth century. In 2004, about 19.5% of the population was over the age of 65.

    The changes in the demographic structure have created a number of social issues, particularly a potential decline in the workforce population and increases in the cost of social security benefits such as the public pension plan. It is also noted that many Japanese youth are increasingly preferring not to marry or have families as adults. Immigration and birth incentives are sometimes suggested as a solution to provide younger workers to support the nation's aging population. Immigration, however, is not popular.

    Around 84% of Japanese people profess to believe both Shinto (the indigenous religion of Japan) and Buddhism. Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism from China have significantly influenced Japanese beliefs and mythology. Religion in Japan tends to be syncretic in nature, and this results in a variety of practices, such as parents and children celebrating Shinto rituals, students praying before exams, couples holding a wedding at a Christian church and funerals being held at Buddhist temples. A minority (0.7%) profess to Christianity. The Ainu language is moribund, with only a few elderly native speakers remaining in Hokkaidō. Most public and private schools require students to take courses in both Japanese and English.

    Education and health

    Primary, secondary schools and universities were introduced into Japan in 1872 as a result of the Meiji Restoration. Since 1947, compulsory education in Japan consists of elementary school and middle school, which lasts for nine years (from age 6 to age 15). Almost all children continue their education at a three-year senior high school, and, according to the MEXT, about 75.9% of high school graduates attend a university, junior college, trade school, or other post-secondary institution in 2005. Japan's education is very competitive, especially for entrance to institutions of higher education. According to The Times Higher Education Supplement, the two top-ranking universities in Japan are the University of Tokyo and Kyoto University.

    In Japan, healthcare services are provided by national and local governments. Payment for personal medical services is offered through a universal health care insurance system that provides relative equality of access, with fees set by a government committee. People without insurance through employers can participate in a national health insurance program administered by local governments. Since 1973, all elderly persons have been covered by government-sponsored insurance. Patients are free to select physicians or facilities of their choice.

    Culture and recreation

    Japanese culture has evolved greatly over the years, from the country's original Jōmon culture to its contemporary culture, which combines influences from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include crafts (ikebana, origami, ukiyo-e, dolls, lacquerware, pottery), performances (bunraku, dance, kabuki, noh, rakugo), traditions (games, tea ceremony, budō, architecture, gardens, swords) and cuisine. The fusion of traditional woodblock printing and Western art led to the creation of manga, a typically Japanese comic book format that is now popular within and outside Japan. Manga-influenced animation for television and film is called anime. Japanese-made video game consoles have prospered since the 1980s.

    Japanese music is eclectic, having borrowed instruments, scales and styles from neighboring cultures. Many instruments, such as the koto, were introduced in the ninth and tenth centuries. The accompanied recitative of the Noh drama dates from the fourteenth century and the popular folk music, with the guitar-like shamisen, from the sixteenth. Western music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, now forms an integral part of the culture. Post-war Japan has been heavily influenced by American and European modern music, which has led to the evolution of popular band music called J-Pop.{{cite web |url=http://observer.guardian.co.uk/omm/story/0,,1550807,00.html |title= J-Pop History |publis

    In 1603, a Tokugawa shogunate (military dictatorship) ushered in a long period of isolation from foreign influence in order to secure its power. For 250 years this policy enabled Japan to enjoy stability and a flowering of its indigenous culture. Following the Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854, Japan opened its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Japan became a regional power that was able to defeat the forces of both China and Russia. It occupied Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), and southern Sakhalin Island. In 1931-32 Japan occupied Manchuria, and in 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. Japan attacked US forces in 1941 - triggering America's entry into World War II - and soon occupied much of East and Southeast Asia. After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US. While the emperor retains his throne as a symbol of national unity, actual power rests in networks of powerful politicians, bureaucrats, and business executives. The economy experienced a major slowdown starting in the 1990s following three decades of unprecedented growth, but Japan still remains a major economic power, both in Asia and globally.

    Location: Eastern Asia, island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula

    Population: 127,463,611 (July 2006 est.)

    Languages: Japanese

    Country name: conventional long form: none
    conventional short form: Japan
    local long form: Nihon-koku/Nippon-koku
    local short form: Nihon/Nippon

    Capital: name: Tokyo
    geographic coordinates: 35 42 N, 139 46 E
    time difference: UTC+9 (14 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

    Economy - overview:
    Government-industry cooperation, a strong work ethic, mastery of high technology, and a comparatively small defense allocation (1% of GDP) helped Japan advance with extraordinary rapidity to the rank of second most technologically powerful economy in the world after the US and the third-largest economy in the world after the US and China, measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis. One notable characteristic of the economy is how manufacturers, suppliers, and distributors work together in closely-knit groups called keiretsu. A second basic feature has been the guarantee of lifetime employment for a substantial portion of the urban labor force. Both features are now eroding. Japan's industrial sector is heavily dependent on imported raw materials and fuels. The tiny agricultural sector is highly subsidized and protected, with crop yields among the highest in the world. Usually self sufficient in rice, Japan must import about 60% of its food on a caloric basis. Japan maintains one of the world's largest fishing fleets and accounts for nearly 15% of the global catch. For three decades, overall real economic growth had been spectacular - a 10% average in the 1960s, a 5% average in the 1970s, and a 4% average in the 1980s. Growth slowed markedly in the 1990s, averaging just 1.7%, largely because of the after effects of overinvestment during the late 1980s and contractionary domestic policies intended to wring speculative excesses from the stock and real estate markets and to force a restructuring of the economy. From 2000 to 2003, government efforts to revive economic growth met with little success and were further hampered by the slowing of the US, European, and Asian economies. In 2004-06, growth improved and the lingering fears of deflation in prices and economic activity lessened. Japan's huge government debt, which totals 175% of GDP, and the aging of the population are two major long-run problems. Some fear that a rise in taxes could endanger the current economic recovery. Internal conflict over the proper way to reform the financial system will continue as Japan Post's banking, insurance, and delivery services undergo privatization between 2007 and 2017.


    Blue Ocean Scuba  - Information on diving, dive shops, trips, and classes in the Misawa area in the northern part of the country, by a local instructor. Also includes a photo gallery.

    Carte Marine  - Located in Yabiji, with information on instruction, charter boat, snorkeling, rates and reservations, accommodations, and contacts.

    Dive Japan  - Links and information on scuba diving in Japan.

    Dolphin Hotel  - Description of ice diving and scuba diving services located in Shiretoko, a northern peninsula of Hokkaido Island. Photo gallery, rates and contact details included.

    Japan Diving  - Diving tours, trips and NAUI courses from beginner to instructor, in southern Japan, Kumamoto, Kyushu.

    JOUJOU  - Scuba diving operator in Tsushima, Nagasaki.

    20,000 Leagues Under Reality  - Contains links and information on diving in Japan.

    Mar Scuba  - Information about scuba diving in Japan especially for non-Japanese. Includes PADI scuba diving courses, Tokyo/Izu diving areas, tips and hints.

    NASDS Japan  - National Association of Scuba Diving Schools.

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